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41 terms

Psychology: thinking, language, and intelligence

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problems
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular prototypes
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
the way an issue is posed
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
babbling stage
beginning by about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
the mental abilities needed to select, adapt to, and shape environments
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient
defined originally as the ratio of mental age to the chronological age multiplied by 100
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
general intelligence
a general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group"
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
the behavior that a test is designed to assessed
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype