Chemistry acids/bases terms

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Arrenhius acid
A substance that produces hydronium ions in solution
Arrenhius base
A substance that produces hydroxide ions in solution
Bronsted-Lowry acid
proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry base
proton acceptor
Lewis acid
accept electron pairs in forming a covalent bond
Lewis base
electron pair donor in forming a covalent bond
monoprotic acid
An acid containing only one acidic hydrogen
diprotic acids
Acids containing two acidic hydrogens
binary acid
An acid in which the acidic hydrogen is bonded to a single element
Oxyacids
Acid in which the acidic hydrogen is bonded to a polyatomic ion
Taste of acids
Sour
Feel of acids
Sting and burn skin
Acid's reaction with metals
Produces hydrogen gas
Acid conductivity
Increase H2O conductivity (electrolyte)
Acid neutralization
Neutralize bases
Acid indicators
Litmus turns RED
Taste of bases
Bitter
Feel of bases
Smooth and slippery; burns skin
Base's reaction with metals
Does not produce hydrogen gas
Base conductivity
Increase H2O conductivity (electrolyte)
Base neutralization
Neutralize acids
Base indicators
Litmus turns BLUE
Electrolyte
Substance that makes water more conductive to electricity
Neutralization
When an acid & base are combined together, their acidic and basic properties are reduced
Indicator
A compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base
Limitations of Arrenhius definition
- requires that some acids and bases exist in solutions (when many exist as solids and gases)
- requires specific type of ion (H+/OH-) to be produced
A hydrogen ion is a hydrogen atom that has had its one ________ removed
Electron
Hydrogen atom
One proton, one electron
hydrogen ion (H+)
A single proton with a charge of 1+ (no electrons)
A hydrogen proton and ion are __________?
The same thing
Difference between Arrenhius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions
Arrhenius Bases: Must give off OH- ions
Bronsted-Lowry Bases: Must accept H+ ions
*not required to give off OH- ions
conjugate acid-base pair
An acid losing a proton forms a conjugate base, and a base gaining a proton forms a conjugate acid
amphoteric compound
can behave as an acid or base (ex/ water) depending on the strength/weakness of the other substance
Nomenclature of bases
1.) full name of the cation (first ion)
2.) name of the anion (2nd ion) plus the suffix -ide
use the full name of the anion/2nd ion if it is polyatomic
Nomenclature of binary acids
Acid in which the acidic hydrogen is bonded to a single element
Add hydro- prefix to the beginning, and add -ic acid to the ending
Nomenclature of oxyacids
Acids in which the acidic hydrogen is bonded to a single element
Add -ic acid to a variant of the polyatomic ion (-ous for secondary forms)
triprotic acids
acids that contain three acidic hydrogens
Strength of acids and bases is determined by ____________?
The number of H+/OH+ ions that they produce
Strong acid releases a large amount of ____________ in solution?
H+ ions
A strong base releases a large amount of ______________ in solution?
OH- ions
pH scale
A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
autoionization of water
when pure water reacts with itself to for hydronium and hydroxide ions; H2O —> H+ + OH-
Ionization constant
(Kw)
Neutral solution
a solution whose pH equals 7
acidic solutions
solutions that have a pH scale value less than 7
Basic solutions
have pH values greater than 7
pH equation
pH = -log[H+]
pOH equation
-log[OH-]
[H3O+]
antilog(-pH)
[OH-]
antilog(-pOH)
Kw
[H+][OH-] = 10^-14
pH + pOH
14
Titration
A solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution.
Indicator
Compound that changes color in response to changes in the solution's pH
transition interval
the pH range over which an indicator changes color
equivalence point
Middle of transition interval
Buret
Used to withdraw and measure volumes of solutions in titrations
Standard
solution of known concentration
Titration Calculations
1.) write balanced equation for reaction
2.) determine moles of "known" used
3.) determine the moles of "unknown" reacted
4.) determine the concentration of the unknown
Buffer
Solution that resists change in pH
Most buffers consist of
Weak acids/bases and their conjugate acids/bases
Buffers are usually made by combining ____________ with _______________ containing the conjugate base
A weak acid; a "salt"
Buffers cab be found in __________?
Human blood