59 terms

Chapter 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Physical Geology
-Earth Composition.
-Processes operating beneath and upon the surface of the Earth.
Historical Geology
-Origin of the Earth.
-Physical and biological changes over 4.6 billion years.
Example of historical geology:
Grand Canyon: hundreds of millions of years of Earth history recorded in the strata.
Examples of Environmental Problems:
-Urban air pollution
-Acid rain
-Ozone depletion
-global warming
Hydrosphere
All the water at and near the surface of the earth.
-N. Hemisphere
-S. Hemisphere
-Glaciers
-Oceans
What percentage of the earth's water is in oceans?
97%
What percentage of the earth is covered in water?
71%
Atmosphere
Thin, blanket of air.
Principle of Uniformitarianism
-Present is key to the past.
Ex: volcanic activity at the beginning of the earth is everywhere, less eruptions in less areas now.
-By knowing how it works now we can understand the past.
Bidirectional current
Ripple marks in the sand are even on both sides.
current predominantly in one direction
ripple marks leaning in one direction.
Non-renewable resources
Metals and fossil fuels
Coal
Formed from plants falling in bog, decomposing, using up all available oxygen, compressing, being covered in mud, compressing more, becoming lithified.
Lithification
Conversion into rock
Renewable resources
Can be replenished in a fairly brief period of time (lifetime). Ex: Plants, energy from wind and water.
Resources
Water
Soil
Minerals
Energy
Physical Environment
Water
Air
Soil
Rock
Environment
Surrounds and influences organisms.
Astronomy
Study of the universe.
Andromeda Galaxy
a spiral galaxy, closest to the milky way, in the constellation of Andromeda that is visible to the naked eye. (photo taken by the GALEX orbiter, NASA)
Meteorology
Study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate.
-Air circulation, mid-latitude cyclones
Example of a mid-latitude cyclone:
Hurricane Rita: Cat 5 hurricane with sustained winds of 170mph. Sept 2005.
Oceanography
Study of the ocean.
IODP
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
-Drilling in Chikyu, Japan.
-World's most advanced drilling vessel.
-Drills 7,000 meters below seabed and ocean epth as deep as 2,500 meters.
-Ship has thrusters, pipes continuing extending to below ocean floor. Pulls up sediment core.
-Phytoplankton and Zooplankton fall to floor. Foraminiferans take calcium carbonate from water, create shell, create oxygen isotope in shell, die, drops to ocean floor.
Geology
Study of the Earth. Two types: physical and historical.
Earth Science
Encompasses all sciences studying Earth and it's neighbors in space. Include Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography, and Astronomy.
What are the four fields in Earth Science?
Geology
Oceanography
Meteorology
Astronomy
What is an example of renewable energy?
Wind Farm
Hydraulic Dam
What is an example of non-renewable energy?
Oil Well
Coal deposits
Acid Rain
Precipitation produced when pollutants in the atmosphere cause the PH of rain to decrease.
H2O + CO2 -> H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
What are the four earth spheres?
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Geosphere
Biosphere
Environmental
Those aspects that focus on the relationships between people and the natural environment.
Geologic Time Scales
Space scale: atoms to galaxies
Time scale: fraction of a second to billions of years.
What is the Earth's age?
4.6 billion years
Geosphere
Solid Earth. Based on compositional differences (core, mantle, crust). Division of outer portion based on how materials behave (lithosphere, asthenosphere).
What are the two divisions of the geosphere based on the outer portion of how the materials behave?
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Rigid, brittle outer layer
Asthenosphere
"Plastic" layer; due to heat/pressure.
What are the three parts of the geosphere?
Core
Mantle
Crust
What does science assume the natural world is?
Consistent
Predictable
What is the goal of science?
To discover patterns in nature and to use the knowledge to predict.
In scientific inquiry, an idea can become a
Hypothesis
Theory
Paradigm
Hypothesis
Tentative or untested explanation of an observation.
Theory
Tested and confirmed hypothesis
Paradigm
Theory that explains a large number of interrelated aspects of the natural world (ex: plate tectonics)
Scientific method
Gaining scientific knowledge through observation, formulating hypotheses and theories.
List the steps of the scientific method:
1. Raise a question about the natural world.
2. Collect scientific facts through observation and measurement.
3. Develop one or more working hypotheses to explain the facts.
4. Design experiments to test hypothesis/hypotheses.
5. Accept, reject, or modify hypotheses.
6. Share data and results with scientific community for critique and further testing.
The earth's crust is thicker in the:
continents
The earth's crust is thinner in the:
ocean
List and describe the sciences that collectively make up Earth science.
Geology: study of the Earth.
Oceanography: study of the ocean.
Meteorology: study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather.
Astronomy: the study of the universe.
Discuss the nature of scientific inquiry.
It assumes that the natural world is consistent and predictable. It's goal is to discover patterns in nature and to use the knowledge to predict.
Outline the stages in the formation of our solar system.
The birth of our solar system began as dust and gases in a nebula. The nebula started to gravitationally collapse.
The nebula contracted into a flattened, rotating disk that was heated by the conversion of gravitational energy into thermal energy.
Cooling of the nebular cloud caused rocks and metallic material to condense into tiny particles.
Repeated collisions caused the dust-size particles to gradually coalesce into asteroid-size bodies that accreted into planets within a few million years.
List and describe Earth's four major spheres.
Hydrophere: a dynamic mass of water that covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It accounts for 97% of the Earth's water. 3% of it includes all the fresh water.
List Earth's internal structure.
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List and describe the major features of the continents and ocean basins.
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Define system and explain why Earth is considered to be a system.
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Discuss the scales of space and time in Earth science.
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Distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory.
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Briefly explain why the geosphere can be described as being mobile.
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