AP Biology Big Idea 2 Vocab
Terms in this set (37)
Found in eukaryotic cells, has a nucleus containing DNA, and membrane bound organelles.
Marine animals that maintain the osmolarity of their body fluids so its equal to the surrounding sea water.
regulate their body osmolarity which always stays constant
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solution concentration
Transport that does not require energy.
any hormone that is signaled outside the body that functions in communication between members of the same species
process used by plants to convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel organisms' activities. Carbs are made by this process. Carbon dioxide, Water, and light energy are used to produce glucose and oxygen
the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
a form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process
type of ecological succession that occurs in an area where there were originally no organisms present and where soil has not yet formed
an organism that produces organic compounds from carbon dioxide by harnessing light energy
Nonliving; referring to physical and chemical properties of an environment
movement of a substance across a cell membrane, with an expenditure of energy, against its concentration or electrochemical gradient; mediated by specific transport proteins
process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
metabolic pathways that consume energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds
The ability of some plant species to reproduce asexually through seeds without fertilization by a male gamete
reproduction without the fusion of gametes
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells
A complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port through which protons diffuse. This complex functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP. Found in mitochondria in a eukaryotic cell and in the plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells.
A method of asexual reproduction by "division in half". In prokaryotes, binary fission does not involve mitosis, but in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo binary fission, mitosis is part of the process
Biotic-pertaining to living organisms in the environment
reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions) involving the fixation of atmospheric C02 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrates
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species
An area of living things and their interactions with non-living things
Reactions that finish with more heat than they started with
the transfer of energy from endergonic reactions to exergonic reactions
measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system
measure of the total disorder of a system
reactions that lose heat energy
a form of passive transport
A feedback mechanism, when a certain thing is sensed, it starts the release of a chemical necessary for response to the initial activation
metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved human muscle cells In its strictest sense, fermentation is the absence of the electron transport chain and takes a reduced carbon source, such as glucose, and makes products like lactic acid or acetate.
also known as guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in transmitting signals from a variety of different stimuli outside a cell into the inside of the cell.
the metabolic pathway that converts glucose, into pyruvate
Part of the cellular endomembrane system, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion.