AP US History Time Period 2 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (32)
Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company, Jamestown was the first English colony to survive into a lasting settlement. Its leading crop was tobacco, planted and harvested through the utilization of African slaves.
Metacom's War (King Philip's War)
A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanoags, led by Metacom, a chief also known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
The Anglo-Powhatan Wars were three wars fought between English settlers of the Virginia Colony, and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in the early seventeenth century. The First War started in 1610, and ended in a peace settlement in 1614. Another war between the two powers lasted from 1622 to 1626.
John Rolfe introduced the tobacco industry in the colonies. By 1612, he perfected methods of raising and curing it. Because of such high European demand, it became Virginia's main cash crop. Tobacco became a staple crop in the plantation colonies.
New England Colonies
Included Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. The geography of these colonies was rocky, meaning there were lots of towns on the sea. Their economies were based primarily on fishing and trade, both utilizing their skilled shipbuilders.
Included New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey. The soil of these colonies was fertile. Easy access to the Delaware and Hudson Rivers allowed for prime trade. Their economies thrived due to lots of farming and plentiful crops.
Included Virginia, Georgia, Maryland, and North and South Carolina. In this area, there were lots of rivers, bays, and wetlands, allowing for fertile farmland. In the South, crops grown included tobacco, cotton, indigo, corn, and rice.
Dissenters from the Church of England who wanted a genuine Reformation rather than the partial Reformation sought by Henry VIII. The Puritans' religious principles emphasized the importance of an individual's relationship with God developed through Bible study, prayer, and introspection.
Particular type of agriculture that is used for selling the crops harvested to make money. Sugar plantations in the New World were a major part of the economy.
African Slave Trade
The African Slave Trade transported African slaves to the Americas to work in plantations, on farms, and more. They were treated as if they were lower than dirt, packed hundreds at a time in the lower decks of boats with little to eat or drink.
The brutal sea voyage from Africa to the Americas that took the lives of nearly two million enslaved Africans.
Three-part trade route between Europe, Africa and the Americas,
The pilgrims were a group of puritans who journeyed from England to America in search of religious freedom. They landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
The first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was drafted by the Pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower, seeking religious freedom. It was signed on November 11, 1620
Epithet for members of the Society of Friends. Their belief was that God spoke directly to each individual through an "inner light" and that neither ministers nor the Bible was essential to discovering God's Word put them in conflict with both the Church of England and orthodox Puritans.
Workers contracted for service for a specified period. In exchange for agreeing to work for four or five years (or more) without wages in the colonies, indentured workers received passage across the Atlantic, room and board, and status as a free person at the end of the contract period.
An uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, in which discontented frontiersmen fought, it was the first rebellion in the American colonies.
Stono County Rebellion
A slave rebellion that began on Sunday, September 9, 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution.
Conflict between Connecticut colonists, aided by British forces and friendly Indian tribes, and the Pequot Indians. Resulted in the defeat and dispersion of the Pequot tribe.
Salem Witch Trials
Trials held in Salem, Massachusetts, which put around twenty women to death with little to no evidence supporting their executions.
A series of religious revivals in the New World, especially in New England, lasting from about 1725-1770.
He was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his sermon titled: "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
Leader who controlled the "New Lights" began the Great Awakening
House of Burgesses
The first democratically elected legislative assembly in British North America
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 occurred when the Spanish arrived in modern day New Mexico and tried to force the people to convert to Christianity. They arrested the Pueblo holy men and even put some to death. As revenge, the Pope, lead a revolt against the Spanish and killed 400 Spaniards all together, 35 being priests. The Spanish are forced to leave the area. When the spanish arrive 13 years later, they realize they cannot force the Pueblo to convert to Christianity. For a time they lived in harmony with one another.
The Enlightenment questioned cherished traditions and invited experimentation in science, nature, religion, civil law, and universal truth. It was a reexamination in some respects of how people thought.
A process in which Americans began to think of themselves as less American and acted more and more English. The wealthy Americans sent their sons off to be educated in Britain, proper British etiquette and behavior were employed and the latest fashions from London and other luxuries were imported. Even homes were modeled on British town houses and country estates. Anglicization was significant because although the colonies of the New World were established to be different than England, more and more it appeared that the colonies adopted English customs in all kinds of ways, including the wealthy English way of life. Many of the wealthy ended up deep in debt due to trying to become more English and maintain a high standard of life.
Trans-Atlantic Print Culture
The unification of the colonies and Britain through shared culture, using books and magazines printed by the printing press, which was beginning to gain popularity.
Resistance to Slavery
The most serious resistance to slavery occurred in the Stone Rebellion. It took place in South Carolina and was the largest slave rebellion prior to the American Revolution.
Colonies established during the Restoration of the English crown. Included the Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
They regulated trade in order to benefit the British economy. The acts restricted trade between England and its colonies to English or colonial ships, required certain colonial goods to pass through England before export, provided subsidies for the production of certain raw goods in the colonies, and banned colonial competition in large-scale manufacturing.
Maryland Toleration Act
A law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians