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World History Chapter 20: Age of Exploration

World History review study guide questions
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When Columbus thought he had reached the East Indies, where did he really land?
Bahamas and San Salvador
What was Columbus searching for when he explored these lands?
Gold
Did Columbus find any gold in San Salvador?
No
Why did the Spanish monarch fund more trips for Columbus if he did not find any gold?
Columbus intended to transform the Caribbean Islands into Spanish colonies
In 1500, what did Pedro Cabral discover for Portugal?
Brazil
In 1507, what did Amerigo Vespucci discover for Portugal?
parts of South America
In 1519, what did Ferdinand Magellan discover?
Philippines
In 1519, what did Fernando Cortes discover for Spain?
Mexico
What were the followers of Fernando Cortes called?
conquistadors
In 1521, what empire did Fernando Cortes conquer in search of gold?
Aztec empire
Why was Fernando Cortes able to conquer the Aztec empire?
1. superior weaponry
2. more numbers
In 1532, what empire did Francisco Pizarro conquer in search of gold?
Incan empire
What did Spanish rulers force the native people to do when they conquered land?
ranch, farm, or mine for them as slaves
During the 1530's, what did the Spanish colonists find in Brazil instead of gold?
large amounts of sugar
What were the 4 steps involved in the Triangular Trade?
1. Europeans transported manufactured goods to Africa
2. Traders exchanged these goods for Africans
3. Africans were transported across the Atlantic and sold
4. Merchants bought sugar, coffee, and tobacco and sailed to Europe with these products.
What was the Middle Passage?
voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America
Name 4 reasons why the journey for Africans across the Atlantic was brutal?
1. Africans packed into the dark parts of the ship
2. endured whippings from merchants
3. caught diseases
4. committed suicide by drownings
Name 4 reasons why slave life for Africans was harsh?
1. auctioned off to the highest bidder
2. lived on little food
3. lived in small, dreary huts
4. worked long days and suffered beatings
What was the Atlantic Slave Trade?
buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
What were 4 tactics used by slaves to resist harsh treatment?
1. breaking tools
2. uprooting plants
3. working slowly
4. revolting against the owners
Why did sugar plantations and tobacco farms need slaves to be profitable?
required a large supply of workers
Why did the spread of Islam increase slavery?
Muslim belief stated that non-Muslim prisoners of war could be slaves
What were 4 advantages of using Africans as slaves in the Americas?
1. Africans were immune to diseases
2. Africans had experience in farming
3. Africans were less likely to escape, because they did not know the land
4. Skin color made it easy to catch them if they escaped
What was the Atlantic Slave Trade?
buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
Which 4 nations imported the most African slaves?
1. Spain
2. Portugal
3. Brazil
4. England