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Terms in this set (21)
Describe a water molecule
Polar with a partial negative charge. Oxygen is more electronegative and therefore the electrons are more attracted to the oxygen
Describe a water molecule's bonding
Hydrogen and oxygen atoms covalently bonded together.
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules
Can bond to other polar or charged molecules
Why is pH important?
Has the ability to alter the charge and hence the shape of biological molecules. The shape of biological molecules determines its function.
How are macromolecules formed
How are monomers formed from macromolecules?
Used for energy storage, Formed from glucose linking together, linear
Structural polymer, Beta configuration of glucose, linear
used for long term energy storage. They are energy dense and a major component of cell membranes
Hydrophilic phosphate head and a hydrophobic fatty acid tail
Protein monomers and polymers
Polypeptide: Polymers of amino acids. Protein: One or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific arrangement
Functions of Proteins
Structure and support (tubulin), Storage (ovalbumin), Transport (haemoglobin), Hormonal (insulin), Receptors, Contraction and motility (actin and myosin), Defence (antibodies and immunoglobins), Enzymatic degradation (digestion)
4 Levels of protein structure
Primary, secondary, tertiary, Quaternary
Primary protein structure
Linear chain of amino acids
Secondary protein structure
Regions stabilised by hydrogen bonds between atoms on the polypeptide backbone
Tertiary protein structure
3D shape stabilised by interactions between the R groups. The protein folds.
Quaternary protein structure
Association of two or more proteins
each individual protein in the structure is a subunit
Store and transmit information
Flow of information for nucleic acids
DNA to RNA to Proteins
Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Nucleotide structure includes:
Phosphate group, ribose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), nitrogenous base
Purine bases are adenine and guanine and have 2 rings. Pyrimidine bases are uracil, thymine, and cytosine and have 1 ring
Differences between DNA and RNA strands
RNA is usually single stranded whereas DNA is double stranded
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AS OCR Biology A
A-Level Biology - OCR
Bio Nutrition Test
Fibrous and Globular Protein
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