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Terms in this set (61)
. ________ is NOT your Father: ______ _______ is
Freaud, William Wuunt
Clinical is just one of many subﬁelds psychology. A few other subﬁelds of psychology include _________ & __________
developmental and social
Psychology is not an art it is a _________
While historically, psychology movements were characterized by studying either ________ or _________, today we deﬁne psychology as:__________________________________________
cognition or behavior, the science of behavior and mental process
The 'milk stool' of psychology requires considering __________, ___________, and _____________ inﬂuences.
Bio, Psycho, social-cultural
Perception is _________
________ is more reliable than experiences and instincts
Anecdote does not equal __________
Hindsight is 20/20, that is the _________ ________
We underestimate the threat of global warming on a snowy day
because of the _________ _______
It looks like Donald Trump is in our butter because we ________ __________ in random events
To counter our inaccurate perceptions, we need to be scientists and make _______ ______ observations
. A good theory __________ and makes _________ ________
explains, testable predictions
The three main types of research methods are _________, __________, & _____________
descriptive, correlation , and experimental
Correlation does not equal ____________
Three possible explanations for a correlation are ___________, __________, & ____________
perfect positive (one goes up, other goes up, mo money mo problems) perfect negative (one goes down other goes down, happiness v. time spent looking for it) no relationship
We must beware of __________ correlations
The __________ research methods allows us to make claims about causality
List the steps of the scientiﬁc method in order
question/observation, theory/background research, hypothesis, experiment, peer review, conclution
Be able to deﬁne and give examples of the terms on the next page:
Construct Validity, Independent Variable Dependent Variable, Hypothesis, Between participants design, Within participants design, Theory & background research
*construct validity- degree to which a test measures what it claims, prayer
*IV- tampered with, prayed for or not
*DV-result of tampered with variable, health afterwards
*Hypothesis-proposed explanation based on evidence, prayer heals
*Between part des- different groups tested by the same factor
*Within part des- all subjects to every treatment
*theo and back re- background research to and emerging hypothesis
Everything psychological is _______________
Your brain generates ___________ from _________ events
electricity from chemical events
The brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system which is
distinct from the sensory and motor neurons that make up the ___________ nervous system
central nervous system, periferal
_________ influence neurons through slow, long lasting processes while _________ influence neurons through quick, relatively short lived processes
Motor control is ___________ (specific areas of the brain are responsible for moving specific body parts)
Mental experiences arise from ____________ brain activity
coordinated brain activity
The ability for your brain to 'rewire' and repurpose old cortex for new functions is known as ________ __________
Neurons that ________ together _________ together
Humans have a ______-‐‐_______ mind with a ___________ high road and a _____________ low road.
two track, conscious, unconcious
Describe at least two examples from lecture that illustrate dual processing/ the two-‐‐track mind
cocktail party affect, blindsight (sight without conscious awarness
Consciousness arises from ________ brain activity.
What is the 'hard problem' of consciousness?
qualia, why we have an experience, what it feels like to be conscious
Give examples of selective atention
only hearing someone when they call your name
Describe the diﬀerent sleep phases and their associated characteristics.
*rem-dreams, eyes rolling back and forth
*nrem-1-falling asleep twitches
*nrem-2-bod temp drop, heart rate slows
nrem-3-wet the bed, sleep walk/talk
Contrary to popular belief, we are not acting our our dreams in the _______
stage of sleep.
What reasons are proposed for why we sleep? What about why we dream?
*sleep-strengthen, restore and repair, creative problem solving, growth hormone, strengthen neural connections
*dream-safety valve, sorting ,neural pathways, cognitive development
Drugs alter _____________ by inﬂuencing __________.
How can expectations of a drug's eﬀects alter behavior?
body expects it and expect to feel the results, r rated movie and alcohol
There are more diﬀerences _______ groups than ________ groups
2. Identical twins separated at birth allow us to investigate the role of ________ on personality and behavior.
3. Ultimately, nature and nurture ________ to shape synapses, learning, and behavior
work together ???
4. _________ _________ is the mechanism of evolution
5. How might evolutionary psychologists explain observed diﬀerences between males and
females in promiscuous attitudes?
males choose widely, females choose wisely
6. What are the critiques of evolutionary psychology explanations for diﬀerences in behavior?
culture shirts too fast for evolution to keep up, social scripts, often start with effect and work backward
7. What is culture and why is it functional?
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next: keeps people together
8. Deﬁne Individualism and Collectivism
*I-Individualist cultures value independence. They promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals, pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and ﬁnding a unique identity
*C-Collectivist cultures value interdependence. They promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with group identity, with achievement attributed to mutual support.
9. ___________ does not dictate gender, but it can inﬂuence it in two ways: ______________
sex, male and female
10. Culture can deﬁne ________ ________, the set of expected behaviors for males or females
11. Know the diﬀerences between gender identity, transgender, transsexual and sexual
gender you identify with, thinking your the opposite gender than what you are, living as the opposite gender of what you are
_________ tends to be stable across the lifespan, whereas things such as __________ are more ﬂuid
temperament, mannerisms political and religious view
________ is most closely associated with 'nature' whereas __________ is most closely associated with nurture
After repeated exposure to a loud vibrabration, a fetus will show signs of _________, a reduced responsiveness to the noise suggesting learning can occur in the womb
On average, most individuals cannot remember life events that occurred before approximately 3.5 years of age, this is known as ________ _________
According to Piaget, the 4 stages of cognitive development in order are...
sensorimotor (actions and senses), preoperational (words and images, not logic), concrete operational(thinking logically about concrete event arithmetic), formal operatioanl (abstract reasoning)
Peak-‐‐a-‐‐boo is extra fun for a 1 year old because they lack __________ ________
___________ would explain why a child stands right in front of a tv and assumes you have a great view of the screen as well
The Harlow monkey studies showed us that ___________ is not merely about a food source, but about comfort
____________ parents are most likely to raise the most socially competent and secure children
authoritarian, authoritative, permissive
Insecure attachment is broken into two more speciﬁc types of attachment _________ _________ and _________ _________
insecure anxious (Crave acceptance, but remain vigilant to signs of rejection), insecure avoidant (Discomfort getting close to others, use strategies to maintain distance)
Erickson suggests that stages of development are characterized by key psychosocial issues, such as the conﬂict between ________ and ________ faced by infants
trust and mistrust
List a common myth or misbelief about middle or late adulthood
midlife crisis, oldies loose sex drive
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