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Chapter 1 Review
All environments on Earth that support life; sum of all of Earth's ecosystems
All the organisms living in a particular area along with the nonliving factors they interact with (water, air, sunlight); biological community and its physical environment
Entire array of organisms inhabiting an ecosystem
Interacting group of individuals
Individual living thing (bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal)
Organs that work together to perform particular functions (nervous system, digestive system)
Structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
Group of similar cells with a specific function
Unit of living matter, separated from its environment by a membrane (lowest level that can perform activities required for life)
Structure that performs a specific function in a cell
Cluster of atoms held together by chemical bonds (DNA)
Smallest particle of ordinary matter
Organisms that produce their own food
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
Organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
More complex organization formed from a combination of components (cells)
Cell lacking a nucleus, membrane, and most other organelles; found only in Bacteria and Archaea domains
Cell with a nucleus, membrane and other internal organelles; all organisms except Bacteria and Archaea domains composed of eukaryotic cells
At least _____ of North America's rain forests have been heavily logged.
Experimentation is only one part of the scientific process, but it is a very important step because it _____.
allows rejection of some alternative hypotheses
Energy is incorporated into most ecosystems by _____.
Lifeʼs levels of organization define the scope of biology
Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism ----> Organ system ---> Organ ---> Tissue ----> Cell ---> Molecular
Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature
discovery driven and hypothesis driven
causes for natural phenomena
observations that stimulate inquiry and explanation
posing and testing hypotheses
Variables ---> IV/DV, Control
determines whether an association (or relationship between 2 categorical variables in a sample is likely to reflect a real association between these 2 variables in the population
hypothesis of no difference, H0
a pre-calculated probability (chance of being wrong)
an indication of significance level
Degrees of Freedom =
number of possible outcomes
Three domains of life
archaea, bacteria, eukarya
Unity in diversity
All forms of life have common features/DNA or RNA
8 Characteristics of Life
Order, regulation, Growth and development,energy utilization, Response to environment, Reproduction, Evolution
the process of change that happens over generations that transforms life
comprehensive explanations ex. Evolution
features that evolved by means of natural selection
Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs
Energy flow in ecosystems, Carbon cycling, Nitrogen cycle
Biological connections in our lives
Technology (bioengineering), Global warming, Ozone depletion, Stem Cell research
a factor differing between groups
a bunch of facts come to one idea
tasks ideas and see where they apply
tentative explanation to some question - an explanation on trial
expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement
involving distinctions based on qualities
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
A graph that uses line segments to show changes that occur over time
What did Darwin noitce?
He realized that numerous small changes in populations caused by natural selection lead to major alterations of species
two things an ecosystem must accomplish:
-recycle chemicals necessary for life
-move energy through the ecosystem (energy enters as light and exits as heat)
body regulates temperature
-used for work
combinations of structures (components) that provide organization
two groups of cells:
-prokaryotic cells (no nucleus)
Bacteria vs. Archeabacteria
distinguished by DNA
three domains of life:
combo of fungi, plants, and animals
Kingdoms of Eukarya
_____ produce much of the food that supports the ecosystem
_____ comes into an ecosystem in the form of sunlight
Chemical ______ cycle within the ecosystem's web
decomposers _____ chemical nutrients
plants and certain prokaryotes and protists trap energy in the process of ______
____ eat plants or other animals
____ such as prokaryotes and fungi convert dead matter to usable nutrients
plants absorb mineral nutrients from the ____
Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species
The broad taxonomic category above phylum or division; a taxonomic scheme that divided all diversity
Taxonomic category above the kingdom level; three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
One of two prokaryotic domains of life
One of two prokaryotic domains of life
Organism with prokaryotic cells
Organism with eukaryotic cells
Domain of eukaryotes, organisms made of eukaryotic cells; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully (survival of the fittest)
An inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Tentative explanation a scientist proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed
An experiment with at least two tests, a control group (used for comparison) and a test of the effect of a single variable while keeping all other factors the same
Practical application of scientific knowledge
At which point is an investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?
In establishing a test of a hypothesis
A pesticide kills 99.9% of a pest population. What will be the result of the continued application of this pesticide?
Through time, the pesticide will become less effective at killing the pest
Natural selection tends to act at which of the following levels?
What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type?
Natural selection requires ________.
Both heritable variation and differential reproductive success
Discovery science is based on _______.