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94 terms

Chapter 1 Review

STUDY
PLAY
Biosphere
All environments on Earth that support life; sum of all of Earth's ecosystems
Ecosystem
All the organisms living in a particular area along with the nonliving factors they interact with (water, air, sunlight); biological community and its physical environment
Community
Entire array of organisms inhabiting an ecosystem
Population
Interacting group of individuals
Organism
Individual living thing (bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal)
Organ system
Organs that work together to perform particular functions (nervous system, digestive system)
Organ
Structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
Tissue
Group of similar cells with a specific function
Cell
Unit of living matter, separated from its environment by a membrane (lowest level that can perform activities required for life)
Organelle
Structure that performs a specific function in a cell
Molecule
Cluster of atoms held together by chemical bonds (DNA)
Atom
Smallest particle of ordinary matter
Producer
Organisms that produce their own food
Consumer
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
Decomposer
Organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
Emergent properties
New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
System
More complex organization formed from a combination of components (cells)
Prokaryotic cell
Cell lacking a nucleus, membrane, and most other organelles; found only in Bacteria and Archaea domains
Eukaryotic cell
Cell with a nucleus, membrane and other internal organelles; all organisms except Bacteria and Archaea domains composed of eukaryotic cells
At least _____ of North America's rain forests have been heavily logged.
85%
Experimentation is only one part of the scientific process, but it is a very important step because it _____.
allows rejection of some alternative hypotheses
Energy is incorporated into most ecosystems by _____.
plants
Lifeʼs levels of organization define the scope of biology
Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism ----> Organ system ---> Organ ---> Tissue ----> Cell ---> Molecular
Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature
discovery driven and hypothesis driven
Discovery driven
causes for natural phenomena
Hypothesis driven
observations that stimulate inquiry and explanation
Scientific method
posing and testing hypotheses
Experimental design
Variables ---> IV/DV, Control
Chi-Squared
determines whether an association (or relationship between 2 categorical variables in a sample is likely to reflect a real association between these 2 variables in the population
Null Hypothesis
hypothesis of no difference, H0
Significance Level
a pre-calculated probability (chance of being wrong)
p Value
an indication of significance level
Alternative Hypothesis
H1
Degrees of Freedom =
n-1
n =
number of possible outcomes
Three domains of life
archaea, bacteria, eukarya
Archaea
extreme prokaryotes
Bacteria
true prokaryotes
Eukarya
eukaryotes
Unity in diversity
All forms of life have common features/DNA or RNA
8 Characteristics of Life
Order, regulation, Growth and development,energy utilization, Response to environment, Reproduction, Evolution
Evolution
the process of change that happens over generations that transforms life
Theory
comprehensive explanations ex. Evolution
Adaptations
features that evolved by means of natural selection
Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs
Energy flow in ecosystems, Carbon cycling, Nitrogen cycle
Biological connections in our lives
Technology (bioengineering), Global warming, Ozone depletion, Stem Cell research
control
"normal"
variable
a factor differing between groups
induction
a bunch of facts come to one idea
deduction
tasks ideas and see where they apply
hypothesis
tentative explanation to some question - an explanation on trial
quantitative
expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement
qualitative
involving distinctions based on qualities
histogram
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
line graph
A graph that uses line segments to show changes that occur over time
What did Darwin noitce?
He realized that numerous small changes in populations caused by natural selection lead to major alterations of species
two things an ecosystem must accomplish:
-recycle chemicals necessary for life
-move energy through the ecosystem (energy enters as light and exits as heat)
homeostasis
body regulates temperature
energy
-used for work
-heat
-light
system
combinations of structures (components) that provide organization
two groups of cells:
-prokaryotic cells (no nucleus)
-eukaryotic cells
Bacteria vs. Archeabacteria
distinguished by DNA
three domains of life:
-bacteria
-archaea
-eukarya
protists
combo of fungi, plants, and animals
Kingdoms of Eukarya
-protists
-fungi
-plantae
-animalia
_____ produce much of the food that supports the ecosystem
plants
_____ comes into an ecosystem in the form of sunlight
energy
Chemical ______ cycle within the ecosystem's web
nutrients
decomposers _____ chemical nutrients
recycle
plants and certain prokaryotes and protists trap energy in the process of ______
photosynthesis
____ eat plants or other animals
animals
____ such as prokaryotes and fungi convert dead matter to usable nutrients
decomposers
plants absorb mineral nutrients from the ____
soil
Species
Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Taxonomy
Branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species
Kingdom
The broad taxonomic category above phylum or division; a taxonomic scheme that divided all diversity
Domain
Taxonomic category above the kingdom level; three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Bacteria
One of two prokaryotic domains of life
Archaea
One of two prokaryotic domains of life
Prokaryote
Organism with prokaryotic cells
Eukaryote
Organism with eukaryotic cells
Eukarya
Domain of eukaryotes, organisms made of eukaryotic cells; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Theories
Widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence
Natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully (survival of the fittest)
Evolutionary adaptation
An inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Hypothesis
Tentative explanation a scientist proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed
Controlled experiment
An experiment with at least two tests, a control group (used for comparison) and a test of the effect of a single variable while keeping all other factors the same
Technology
Practical application of scientific knowledge
At which point is an investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?
In establishing a test of a hypothesis
A pesticide kills 99.9% of a pest population. What will be the result of the continued application of this pesticide?
Through time, the pesticide will become less effective at killing the pest
Natural selection tends to act at which of the following levels?
Population
What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type?
Population
Natural selection requires ________.
Both heritable variation and differential reproductive success
Discovery science is based on _______.
Inductive reasoning