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Pharmacology ATI: Meds to Know
Terms in this set (55)
Cholesterol absorption inhibitor- lowers LDL
Bile Acid Sequestrant- Lowers LDL
Niacin, Nicotinic Acid
Lowers LDL- used often for pancreatitis
Fibrates- lowers LDL
Cardiac Glycosides- Antidysrhythmic, inotropic
Adrenergic Agonist- Catecholamines
Adrenergic Agonists- catecholamines
Adrenergic Agonist- catecholamines
Class 1 Antidysrhythmic- Sodium Channel Blocker
Class 1 Antidysrhythmic- Sodium Channel Blocker
Class 2 Antidysrhythmic- Beta blockers
Class 3 Antidysrhythmic- Potassium Channel Blocker
Class 4 anti-arrhythmic- Calcium Channel Blocker
Statins- HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Sedative Hypnotic Anxiolytics
E.g. Alprazolam, Lorazepam, Chloridiazepoxide, Clorazepate, -pam
Inhibit GABA; relieve anxiety, intended for short term use.
Adverse: CNS depression, anterograde amnesia, toxicity (drowsiness, lethargy, confusion), pardoxical response, dependence
For OD/toxicity- gastric lavage and activated charcoal, flumazenil
Used for anxiety
Adverse: Dizzines, N/V, lightheadedness, agitation, constipation, suicidal ideation
E.g. Paroxetine, Fluoxetine, Sertraline, Escitalopram, Citalopram
Used for anxiety and anxiety disorders; long term usage
Adverse: weight gain, decreased libido, bruxism, increased CNS effects
Peripherally acting muscle relaxant.
Relief of spasticity in cerebral palsy, SCI, and MS.
Tx for malignant hyperthermia.
Adverse: CNS depression, hepatotoxicity, and muscle weakness
Centrally acting muscle relaxant.
Enhances GABA in the CNS to produce sedative effect; also used for relief of spasticity r/t cerebral palsy, SCI, and MS.
Adverse: N/V, constipation, urinary retention, and seizures
Used for nonobstructive urinary retention- Helps you pee! Causes relaxation of the trigone and sphincter muscles and contraction of the detruser muscle- increases bladder pressure and urine excretion.
Adverse: extreme muscarinic stimulation- gastric acid increase, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, sweating, tearing
Education: Administer 1-2 hours after meals/before to decrease N/V
Prevents contraction of bladder and urge to void; used for overactive bladder; STOPS MAKING YOU PEE.
Adverse: Anticholinergic effects; CNS- hallucination, confusion, insomnia, nervousness
Education: Contraindicated for clients with glaucoma, MG, paralytic ileus, obstruction, urinary retention; rotate the patch on the hip, butt, and abdomen.
Used for mild to moderate HF, liver and kidney disease; also used to reduce urine in DI, and can reduce risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Adverse: Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloridemia, dehydration, hyperglycemia, increased LDL, and other low electrolyte levels.
Education: Avoid during pregnancy; monitor electrolyte levels
Used for rapid excretion; blocks reabsorption of sodium, water, and chloride.
Adverse: Hypotension, ototoxicity, hypokalemia
Education: Digoxin toxicity is increase w/ hypokalemia- monitor electrolyte levels, obtain baseline BP, weight, and electrolytes; avoid using late in the day to prevent nocturia; infuse IV at least 20 mg/min.
Nasal Glucocorticoids types:
mometasone, fluticasone, triamcinolone, budesonide
Decrease inflammation associated with allergic rhinitis.
Adverse: sore throat, headache, nosebleed, burning in the nose
Education: Given by MDI, may take 7-21 days to work, clear nasal passages before use, administer daily
Used for allergy relief
Adverse: sedation, anticholinergic effects, GI discomfort, acute toxicity, respiratory depression
Education: Avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants
Used for allergy relief and mild allergic reactions; insomnia, itching, motion sickness.
Adverse: sedation, respiratory depression, risk for abuse, toxicity, excitation and CNS increase in children, GI discomfort, and anticholinergic effects
Education: Contraindicated for 3rd trimester pregnancy
Reduces inflammation in nasal mucosa, treats allergic/non allergic rhinitis.
Adverse: rebound congestion (use 3-5 days max), CNS stimulation, vasoconstriction
Contraindicated for closed angle glaucoma.
Captopril, Lisinopril, etc...
Used to decrease blood pressure, and tx for HTN, HF, MI, and nephropathy prevention.
Adverse: angioedema, cough, hyperkalemia, rash, first dose orthostatic hypotension, dysgensia (altered taste), neutropenia
Education: BP monitored 2 hours after first dose; rise slowly and change positions slowly, avoid salt substitutes and food high in potassium
Potassium sparing diuretic
Used for HF
Adverse: Hyperkalemia, endocrine effects- deepened voice for male and irregularities for female, metabolic acidosis, drowsiness
Education: Do not admin. to those with anuria or kidney failure; avoid salt substitutes, reduce intake of foods high in potassium; may take 24-48 hours to work
Bartbituate (Intravenous non-opioid agent)
Used for loss of consciousness and elimination of pain; induction and maintenance of anesthesia.
Adverse: respiratory and cardiovascular depression, hypotension
Used for preoperative sedation
Adverse: respiratory and cardiovascular depression
Education: Avoid CNS stimulants and depressants
Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist
Used for quick relief of asthma; bronchodilator- short acting
Adverse: tachycardia, angina
Education: Check pulse and report if there is an increase of 20-30 bpm; nebulizer can be used; administer beta 2 adrenergic agonists before glucocorticoids to open the airway
Non-opioid intravenous agent
Used for sedation and anesthesia
Adverse: bacterial infection- use opened vials within 6 hours
Used to suppress cough through CNS response; used for chronic non-productive cough.
Adverse: CNS depression- dizziness, lightheadedness, respiratory depression, GI distress, opioid use disorder
Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonists
Inhaled, long acting medication used for long term asthma control; causes bronchodilation.
Adverse: tachycardia, tremors, angina
Education: Contraindicated for tachydysrhythmias, caution in pregnancy, DM, hyperthyroid, and HTN...
Use every 12 hours, NOT AS NEEDED.
used for bronchodilation and to relieve bronchospasm associated with COPD, allergy, or exercise
Adverse: dry mouth, blurred vision, tachy, constipation, urinary retention, hoarseness
Education: Contraindicated for those with PEANUT ALLERGY because it is made with soy letichen; caution in those with narrow angle glaucoma and BPH; rinse mouth after use, dosage is 2 puffs for adults- wait 5 minutes in between other meds
Used for bronchodilation; long term control of asthma or COPD.
Adverse: GI distress and restlessness due to toxicity
Education: THERAPEUTIC RANGE IS 5-15 mcg/mL; severe adverse effects= dysrhythmias and seizures; activated charcoal can be used to decrease absorption
Used to prevent inflammtion, suppress mucous production, and promote dilation; used for severe asthma and status asthmaticus. Also used to increase lung materurity in premature babies.
Adverse: Difficulty speaking, hoarseness, candidiasis
Contraindicated for those who have received a live virus vaccine and the immunosuppressed
Decrease inflammation and mucous production, promotes bronchodilation; used short term following acute asthma attack.
Adverse: If used 10+ days- adrenal gland suppression, bone loss/suppression, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, myopathy, PUD, infection, electrolyte imbalance
Education: May require additional dosing during stress
Reduces inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema; long term treatment for asthma.
Adverse: Depression, suicidal ideation
Education: Take at bedtime and don't take an additional dose for exercise induced asthma, this only works long term
Increases cough production; used for colds, nonallergic rhinitis, lower respiratory problems.
Adverse: GI upset (take with food), drowsiness/dizziness, rash
Education: increase fluids, report cough lasting longer than 1 week
Enhances GABA in the CNS; managment of insomnia
Adverse: Daytime sleepiness, headache, lightheadedness
Education: pregnancy risk category C, precautions with breastfeeding, take at night before bed; do not take with other CNS depressants (alcohol, opioids, etc.), don't do dangerous activities after taking
Cardiac glycoside, inotropic
Increases myocardial contraction and decreases HR. Used for HF and dysrhythmias.
Adverse: dysrhythmias, cardiotoxicity, GI effects, CNS effects, pregnancy risk category C
Education: Take apical pulse for 1 min. before administering, hold if rate is 60 bpm or less; THERAPEUTIC LEVELS ARE 0.5-0.8; infuse over at least 5 min.
Thins secretions and enhances flow. Used for pulmonary disorders, cystic fibrosis. Also antidote for acetaminophen poisoning.
Adverse: Aspiration/bronchospasm, dizziness, tachycardia, hypotension, drowsiness, hepatotoxicity
Education: Smells like rotten eggs; monitor LFTs
Centrally acting vasodilator
Used for HTN crisis; causes direct vasodilation of arteries and veins.
Adverse: Excessive hypotension, cyanide poisoning/thiocyanate toxicity, bradycardia, tachycardia, ECG changes
Education: Do NOT administer in same infusion as any other meds; can be light brown in color; protect IV tubing and med container from light; discard med after 24 hours.
Reduce intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure
Adverse: HF, pulmonary edema, rebound increased ICP, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, metabolic acidosis
Education: Administer by continuous IV infusion, may decrease Lithium levels; weight PT each day, use a filter needle for administration
Calcium channel blocker
Cause vasodilation; used for angina, HTN, and dysrhythmias.
Adverse: Orthostatic hypotension, peripheral edema, constipation, suppression of cardiac function- bradycardia, HF, dysrhythmias, toxicity
Education: Can increase digoxin levels; caution with beta blockers
Calcium channel blocker
Used for HTN and angina
Adverse: Biggest is hypotension and cardiac suppression
Beta blocker- both beta and alpha
Beta blocker- beta 1 and 2, affects both heart and lungs.
Adverse: Bradycardia, decreased CO, AV block, orthostatic hypotension, rebound myocardium excitation, bronchoconstriction, glyconeogenesis inhibition
Education: Can mask hypoglycemia effects and prevent breakdown of fat; don't take with calcium channel blockers
Beta blocker- cardioselective
Decreases HR, decreased myocardial contractility; used for HTN, angina, tachydysrhythmias, HF, MI.
Adverse: Bradycardia, decreased CO, AV block, orthostatic hypotension, rebound myocardial excitation
Centrally Acting Alpha 2 Agonist
Decreases sympathetic outflow- vasodilation; used for HTN and severe cancer pain.
Adverse: Drowsiness/sedation, dry mouth, rebound HTN
Education: Avoid during pregnancy/breast feeding, usually administered daily in 2 doses, transdermal patches applied every 7 days- apply on hairless, intact skin of torso or upper arm.
Calcium channel blocker
Causes vasodilation; used for angina and HTN.
Adverse: Reflex tachycardia, acute toxicity, orthostatic hypotension, and peripheral edema.
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
Causes vasodilation and excretion of sodium and water. Used for HTN, stroke prevention...
Adverse: Angioedema, fetal injury, hypotension, dizziness, lightheadedness
Education: Fetal damage in 2nd and 3rd trimesters; monitor weight and edema; take with or w/o food
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