1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. High mortality rate and hard to contain. Disastrous. (280)
A medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord's estate
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord's manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord's castle or manor house.
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
Commander of the Japanese army in ancient and feudal times. At times more similar to a duke and/or a military dictator.
founded along key trade routes by merchants working in a foreign region, such as Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region or Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia. These communities contributed to cross-cultural interaction by introducing the merchants' cultural traditions (such as religion) into new region.
inn or rest station for caravans, would provide a safe place to stay the night, supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of Africa, Arabia and Asia,
An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.
A group of traders traveling together
A large area of flat un-forested grassland in southeastern Europe or Siberia.
System in which people surrounding China sent emissaries who offered tribute to the Chinese emperor and acknowledged the superiority of the emperor and China.
"the way of the warrior"; Japanese word for the Samurai life ; Samurai moral code was based on loyalty, chivalry, martial arts, and honor until the death
Artificial gardens on floating islands/farms that surrounded Tenochtitlan. Built because of lack of available farmland
A code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion
Civil service exam
Confucian exam given in China to aspiring bureaucrats to test them on Confucian beliefs and goverment understanding.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Land was given in exchange for protection; lords lived off the surplus crops of their vassals
Great Warming Period
A period of unnaturally warm weather in the medival times that lasted from about 800 CE- 1300 CE. 600 CE-1450 CE.
Little Ice Age
Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Storytellers of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions and historians
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
kneeling 3x and bowing head to the floor each time then presenting gifts to the emperor in return for land; similar to the tribute system
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai; warlord but not as powerful as a shogun.
In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel
Class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land
Codified Islamic law which is ethically based on the Qur'an and the Hadith.
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire.
A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.The Abbasid dynasty controlled the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258. It was the second of the two greatest dynasties, overthrowing the Umayyads to gain control, and destroyed by the invasion of the Mongols
A collection of the sayings and deeds of Muhammad
the body of mullahs (Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law) who are the interpreters of Islam's sciences and doctrines and laws and the chief guarantors of continuity in the spiritual and intellectual history of the Islamic community
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
A Bantu language with arabic words, spoken along the east african coast
A government's use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount.
steplike ledges cut into mountains to make land suitable for farming
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.