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Civics Exam 2
Terms in this set (66)
What percentage of all people living in the United Started are descended from families who once lived in another country?
What continent did the first people to live in present United States come from? How long ago did they arrive? What do we call these people today?
Asia; 20,000 years ago; Native Americans
In the 1500s, who made the first permanent homes in the United States?
Who was forced to emigrate to America? Why?
500,000 slaves; they were forced into slavery
Today, more than half of all the people in the United States who were born in another country come from where?
What do people in the same ethnic group share?
A common national, cultural, or racial background
What change will occur in the United States in the 2040s?
Minority groups will be the majority
About 173 million Americans belong to a _________________ church.
Define values.Why are people's values important?
Values are the general beliefs people use to make judgments and decisions. They are important because they influence how people act.
What values unite all Americans?
Freedom, equality, opportunity, justice, and democracy
What is another word for freedom?
Define institution. What is the most important institution in American life?
Institutions are the key practices, relationship, and organizations in a society; Family
List three institutions in America.
Religious institutions, schools, social clubs, and the family
Define civics. Why is it important to the success of our country?
Civics is the study of the duties and rights of citizens. In order to have an effective government, citizens must understand their rights and responsibilities. Informed citizens make wise decisions and they are more prepared to serve office.
What are the two ways a person can become a citizen?
Birth or naturalization
What is dual citizenship?
When someone who was born in a foreign country is a citizen in the United States and where they were born.
What are the five requirements of naturalization?
18 years or older
Permanent resident for five years
Must be able to read, write, and speak English
Must be of good moral character
Must show an understanding of U.S. civics
What does the citizenship exam test?
The applicant's ability to read, write and speak English and their knowledge of U.S. civics
What were the five big ideas found in the early documents that influenced the founding fathers? Define each!
Rule of Law - the idea that all people must follow the laws, and that the laws are enforced fairly
Self Government - people can make decisions on how their government should work
Due Process - People have the right to fair and reasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing laws
Limited Government - A government that has been limited in power by a constitution or other written agreement
Rights - A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions
What is the difference between a legal alien and a refugee?
A legal alien is an immigrant who permanently lives in the U.S. A refugee is a person fleeing his or her country to escape danger.
What is the difference between a citizen's responsibility and a duty? Give two examples of each.
A responsibility of a citizen is something we should do. (Example: Voting and Volunteering) A duty is something we are required to do. (Example: Taxes and Jury Duty)
What are the differences and similarities between the Constitution and the Articles of the Confederation?
The differences are the constitution is the supreme law of the land. Also the constitution has reserved, concurrent, enumerated powers and 3 branches. The articles had a 1 house legislature. Also the articles had power with the states. The similarities are Congress had the power to declare war, make laws, coin money, borrow money, and make treaties.
What do all male citizens aged 18 to 25 have to register for? What is the reason for this?
The Selective Service System; This is in case the government needs a draft during war time.
Respecting and accepting others, regardless of their beliefs, practices, or differences
What are the four duties of government?
Keep order, provide security, provide services, and guide the community
Explain a representative democracy.
A kind of democracy where citizens choose a group of people to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf
Describe a constitutional monarchy.
A monarch who is limited by a constitution
What is a dictatorship?
A government ruled by a leader with absolute authority and usually rules with fear and military force.
What does majority rule mean?
More than half of the community has the power to make laws that everyone must follow
How does an ideology differ from a form of government? What is an example of an ideology?
An ideology is a strict idea about life and society held by a leader or government; Socialism
What is the difference between a unitary and federal system of government?
In a unitary government the central government is supreme. In a federal system the central government shares power with smaller state governments.
What is the difference between a direct democracy and a representative democracy? Which does the U.S. have?
In a direct democracy, each citizen decides individually how they think their country should be governed. In a representative democracy, citizens choose representatives to represent their ideas in government. The U.S. has a representative democracy or a republic.
Why is having a direct democracy so difficult in today's world?
Populations are too large to vote on anything or get anything accomplished.
Who is credited with creating the world's first democracy?
Who made the decisions in Greek democracy?
A council of 500, free men who were over 18
Who created the world's first republic?
What were members of the senate called? What was a requirement to be one of the member?
Patricians; must have been a part of the wealthy upper class
What three similarities in the U.S. government today was also seen in the Roman republic?
Veto power, representatives, and the senate
What was the purpose of the Magna Carta?
Limit the power of the king of England and protect the rights of the nobility
What was the purpose of the Mayflower Compact?
Create a government that would provide order and protect the colonists
What was the purpose of Thomas Paine's Common Sense?
Convince the American colonists to support becoming independent from Great Britain
What is the state of nature? What is not found in a state of nature?
In a state of nature, everyone had a right to everything (anarchy); ideas, laws, and government were not found in this state
Define natural rights. Who gives them?
Natural rights are a freedom people possess relating to life, liberty, and property. They are given by God.
What right was Voltaire in support of?
Freedom of speech
Why does Montesquieu believe separate parts of government are important?
It keeps one branch from becoming too powerful
What was the cause and result of the French and Indian War?
Cause: British settlers were moving into French occupied lands
Result: Great Britain falls into debt and the King taxes colonists to pay for the debts of the war
What did the First Continental Congress ask for in the letter that was sent to the King of England? How did the King react?
To be treated as equal to British citizens; he reacted with harsher measures and taxes
What result did Thomas Paine's Common Sense have on colonial America?
50% of colonial governments supported independence; The Second Continental Congress sent the King the Declaration of Independence.
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
Describe the two ordinances made by the Articles of Confederation.
Land Ordinance of 1785 - set up a plan for surveying western lands
Northwest Ordinance - set up a government for the Northwest Territory; provided a plan for admitting new states to the Union; no slavery
What were two weaknesses of the Articles of the Confederation?
No power to collect taxes
No power to enforce laws
No single leader
No power to regulate trade
What was the cause and effects of Shays Rebellion?
Cause- State governments were in debt and had been seizing properties
Effect- Called for a stronger national government; change the Articles of Confederation
How many states were represented at the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention?
Who did the New Jersey plan favor? Why?
Smaller states; equal voting power
Who did the Virginia plan favor? Why?
Large states; more votes because it would be based on population
What was the Great Compromise?
Congress would have two houses- the Senate and the House
Why did southern states want to count slaves as citizens?
They would receive more votes in the House
How did the 3/5th Compromise fix the controversy of slavery and voting?
For every 5 slaves, they would count as three citizens when deciding the number of votes the states receive in the House
What did the Federalist and Anti-Federalists both want to be added to the Constitution?
A Bill of Rights
What are the three parts of the constitution?
The 7 Articles
The 27 Amendments
What are the major principles of Government?
Popular sovereignty, limited government, rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism
What are the the five amendments in the Bill of Rights we discussed in class?
Amendment I - Freedom of speech, the press, assembly, and religion
Amendment II - citizens have the right to bear arms
Amendment III - The government cannot use the property of private citizens without their consent.
Amendment IV - Citizens are protected from unreasonable search and seizure
Amendment VII - Citizens have the right to a trial by jury in civil cases.
Which types of power are set aside for state governments?
Which types of power are shared by both state governments and the national government?
Which types of power are specifically for the national government?
Define the supremacy clause.
States the Constitution and any other national laws are the supreme law of the land.
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