18 terms

Nation-Building

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Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Shay's Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Constitutional Convention
A meeting of delegates in 1878 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced a totally new constitution still in use today.
The Great Compromise
2 houses, House of Representatives would be based on population, the senate would have 2 representatives from each state
Federalists
A term used to describe proponents of the Constitution during the debate over ratification.
Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Whiskey Rebellion
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Designed to pay off the U.S.'s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.'s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798 Act that criminalized speech that was derisive to the government. Later ruled unconstitutional, Andrew Jackson issued blanket pardon in 1801, (1798) Sought to prevent political protestors and possible spies out of the United States at a time when war with France was expected. The 3 alien acts were aimed at Irish and French immigrants, who were mostly pro-French. The Sedition Act banned the publishing of false or malevolent writings against the government and the stirring up of opposition to any act of Congress or the president.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
War Hawks
Congressman from the South and West who pushed for war against the British
Embargo Act
(1807) a law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.