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Ap Human Geography unit 2
Terms in this set (53)
Encourage couples to limit the number of children they have.
Most often, these policies discourage growth through the provision of contraception or abortion or through establishment of specific disincentives, such as steep penalties for couples bearing more children than allowed by the state.
Number of people in a given unit area.
Does not take into account physiographic differences in that area.
Consist of individuals born post World War 2
Baby Boomers are the largest population cohort in United States demographic history.
Following the Baby Boom, the baby bust was a period of time during the 60-70's when fertility rates in the U.S. dropped
In 1994, the United Nations, at the U.N. International Conference on Population and Development, in Cairo, endorsed a strategy to stabilize global population at 7.27 billion no later than 2015.
Essentially the number of people an area can sustain without critically straining its resource base.
Depends on level of technology and determining an appropriate standard of living.
Advanced technologies can typically sustain many more people than more primitive technologies.
Describes migrant flows from from a common origin to the same destination. Family of friends move first and get established within an area, paving the way for more friends and family to follow the same path.
As number of migrants from a similar area congregate in one place, services specific to that population (both cultural and social) begin to accrue in that area.
With channelized migration streams, the flows between a particular origin and destination are larger than would normally be the case, but they are not the result of family or kinship ties as is the case with chain migration.
For example, channelized migration occurs between Texas and California; in other words, a significantly larger number of people move from Texas to California and vice versa than migration models predict.
A group of individuals who share a common, temporal demographic experience; typically people of a similar age range, but a cohort's definition can be based on other criteria, such as time of marriage or time of graduation.
In the 1980s, when many argued that stricter population controls needed to be placed on countries with high TFR (Total Fertility Rate) in order to stimulate development, many economists argued that increasing populations stimulate rather than hinder economic development.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
Number of live births in a single year for every 1,000 people in a population. Birthrates tend to be highest in least developed regions where both number of women at or near reproducing age and fertility rates are high.
Places with high birth rates tend to be countries where women's access to education is low.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
Number of deaths in a country per 1,000 people.
It is "crude" because it dose not take into account the age structure of a population. For example, several countries in Western Europe have relatively high death rates because of a high proportion of individuals in oiler-age cochorts.
Demographic Accounting Equation
Predicts population change within a particular area as a function of natural increase/ decrease and in / out migration.
Tendency of a population to continue to grow in spite of stringent population policies or rapid fertility decline because of the large number of individuals in their childbearing years.
In countries that implement policies encouraging or enforcing replacement - level fertility rates, it takes several generations before stable growth is achieved because of demographic momentaum.
Demographic Transition Model
Describes population growth stabilization as a function of economic development.
In stage 1 (preindustrialization), a country is characterized by high birth and death rates and little to no growth.
Stage 2, as the country industrializes, birth rates remain high, death rates drop, and population growth is rapid.
Stage 3, birth rates begin to drop as a country becomes fully industrialized.
Stage 4 & 5 describe highly developed countries across the globe where population growth is stable or negative (as in the case in Stage 5).
A measure of the economic impact of younger and older cohorts on the economically productive members of a population.
Younger cohorts are typically children under the age of 15 (ineligible to work); older cohorts are over the age 65 (retired members of a population).
In some countries the dependency ratio includes only males in the economically productive cohort if the local culture prohibits women's participation in the workforce.
Global Growth Doubling Time
Doubling is the amount of time it will take a particular population to double in size.
Countries with growth rates of 1 percent take approximately 70 years to double their population, whereas countries with 2 percent growth rates take only 35 years to double.
When this growth rate is graphed, a J-curve represents the exponential growth.
The proportion of the earth's surface that is inhabited by humans.
Global Population Distribution Patterns
Sixty percent of the world's population lives within 60 miles of the ocean.
Population concentrates in areas with high soil arability / fertility, which also tend to have mild climates.
Population is becoming more urban.
Currently a little over half of the global population is urban with much higher in highly developed regions.
Global Refugee Patterns
Post - September 11th security issues have led many countries of the world, particularly Western Europe and North America, to tighten borders to individuals seeking asylum.
In many African countries, borders are open to refugees such that countries in which refugees are fleeing from also host significant refugee populations.
Individuals who migrate temporarily to take advantage of job opportunities in other countries.
Send a significant portion of their pay, called remittances, back home to support friends and family.
In some countries, remittances are a significant source of income for the national economy.
HIV / AIDS
A major and dramatic exception to recent population growth trends, particularly in the developing world, where the epidemic is having great effects on birth rates, death rates, and life expectancy.
Currently the third most common cause of death worldwide and expected to surpass the Black Death of the fourteenth century as history's worst- ever epidemic.
Can be characterized as involuntary but unforced migrants.
Individuals choose to risk their lives in the migration decision; a decision that is typically motivated by dire economic situations within their own country.
These individuals are also called undocumented workers.
Number of dates during the first year of life per thousand live births.
Tends to be much higher in developing regions as it is strongly related to a country's access to health care services.
Overall, rates have decreased significantly over the last fifty years.
Internal Migration History of the United States
The most significant internal migration movements in the United States can be characterized in three waves:
Wave 1: beginning with colonization, a movement of the population westward and movement and movement from rural to urban areas as places become increasingly industrialized.
Wave 2: from the early 1940's through the 1970's a massive movement of African Americans from the rural south to cities in the South, North, and West.
Wave 3: post - WW2 to the present day, a movement to the sun belt states (the fifteen states from North Carolina to Southern California and all the states south of that line).
Internally Displaced Persons
People who have had to leave their homes because of conflict, human rights abuse, war, or environmental catastrophes, but do not leave their country to seek safety.
A good example in the U.S. in the individuals whose homes were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005.
Average number of years a person can be expected to live.
Number varies globally with highly developed countries experiencing much higher life expectancies than developing countries.
Varies within countries, with cities, among ethnicities, and even between sexes.
Defined as movement to a new activity space (schools, grocery stores, and other places where everyday activities take place as a result of the move) or movement from one administrative region to another.
International migration involves movement over country borders.
Emigration is movement out of a particular place, whereas immigration describes movement to a specific location.
Implies the ability to move from one place to another, either permanently or temporarily.
Includes short-term (the commute to work) and long-term (permanent relocation to a new country) movement patterns.
Natural Increases vs. Natural Decrease
The difference between CBR and CDR indicates natural growth or decline within a population.
When births outnumber deaths, natural increases is occurring; when deaths outnumber births, a country experiences natural decrease.
Natural Increase Variations
Economic development has profound implications on health care, available employment opportunities, and nutrition among other factors contributing to growth.
Populations with better education tend to have lower rates of natural increase.
When women have more economic and political access, power, and education, fertility rates drop.
Some cultural traditions prohibit women from working outside the home, and some traditions prohibit use of contraception.
Neo-Malthusians, following in Malthu's footsteps, believe population growth to be a problem and provide the foundation for many antinatalist population policies.
Many Neo-Malthusians advocate zero population growth (ZPG) in which the number of births and immigrants are equally counteracted by the number of deaths and emigrants.
Overpopulation vs. Underpopulation
Overpopulation is essentially a value judgment reflecting an opinion that an area does not have adequate resources to support the existing population: If an area is overpopulated, it has exceed its carrying capacity.
Underpopulation describes scenarios in which areas or regions do not have enough people to fully exploit the local resource base.
In the migration decision, "place utility" refers to the benefits a place offers to pull people to that destination. Benefits include things like good school systems, good climate, job opportunities, recreational opportunities, etc.
Population Centeroid of the U.S.
The geographic center of the U.S.; essentially the balancing point of the U.S. population if the country is conceived of as a plane.
Historically, has been on the East Coast, with continued migration west and south. The center is progressively moving and is currently thought to be somewhere in southwest Missouri.
Includes total population counts and rates such as crude birth rate, crude death rate, and so on: sources include the United Nations Statistical Office, the World Bank, the Population Reference Bureau, and varying national censuses, among others.
In developing regions, data from censuses can be unreliable as gathering detailed figures proves complicated; accessibility issues make accurate data collection nearly impossible.
In the U.S., the decennial census provides detailed and mostly accurate information on the demographic characteristics of the country.
Crude density, also called arithmetic density, is total number of people divided by the total land area.
Crude density is a "crude"number because it does not provide a full picture of the relationship between people and land.
Issues of density provide a good example of how demography and development can overlap: for example, physiographic density represents the ratio between number of people and amount of arable land in a given unit of area.
Similar to demography in its focus on demographic rates (birth rates, death rates, fertility) except that population geographers investigate patterns from a spatial perspective - why patterns exist, where they exist, and the implications of current population patterns.
As the global number of people on this planet continues to rise, geographers become increasingly concerned with how the world can sustainable provide for growing populations.
Population eaters often overlap with economic development patterns: for example, places with the highest fertility rates are typically less economically developed.
Population Growth Rate
A country's growth rate is determined by its natural increase expressed as a percentage.
For example, a country's natural increase with a CBR of 22 and CDR of 12 is 22-12 =10 per 1,000 translating to growth rate of 1 percent.
Also know as age/sex pyramid.
In general, pyramids come in four different shapes:
1. Rapid growth, distinguished by a wide base.
2. Stability, characterized by a rectangular shape indicating stable growth.
3. Decline, in which the base is smaller than previous cohorts.
4. Disrupted growth, which shows significant gaps in the pyramid usually as a result of war, strict population policies, or other drastic events.
Population Pyramid: United States
Pronatalist Population Policies
Typically exist in countries where population is declining and involve providing incentives for women to have children.
In Europe, where negative population growth is common, countries have instituted programs that encourage births through subsidized child care costs, offering generous maternity leave packages and other services to reproducing women.
Ravenstein's Migration Laws
Describe voluntary migration patters: the laws that still apply today.
1. Every migration flow generally generates a counterflow.
2. The majority of migrants move a short distance.
3. Migrants who move long distances tend to choose big city destinations.
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
Individuals who cross national boundaries to seek safety and asylum.
Typically reluctant or forced migrants who leave their country because of war, famine, environmental catastrophes, or religious persecution.
Reluctant and Forced Migration
In forced migration, an individual migrates against his or her will.
Somewhere between voluntary and forced migration is reluctant migration where an individual reluctantly chooses to move because factors at the current location prohibit them from remaining there.
A common example of an internal forced migration event in the U.S. is the Trail of Tears in the 1830s during which Native Americans from numerous eastern tribes had to migrate west.
In the 1960s and 1970s large number of white, middle-class Americans moved from older northeastern and midwestern cities to the Scout and the West Coast (the sun belt)
The area People were moving from in the upper Midwest became known as the rust belt. These previous industrial powerhouses lost much of their economic base to other parts of the country and other parts of the world.
Sun Belt Migration
Movement of the U.S. population in the last several decades to the sun belt states has dramatically altered the balance of political and economic power as California, Florida, and Texas are now three of the four most populous states in the country. They carry a disproportionate number of electoral votes, have large congressional delegations, and are dominant in many economic sectors such as technology, energy production, and agriculture.
Sustainability is simply defined as using resources in a manner that supplies existing populations while not compromising availability of resources for future generations.
According to Thomas Malthus carrying capacity is limited by food availability.
In reality, Malthus is somewhat accurate: eventually population growth does reach a caring capacity called homeostatic plateau that extends with each technological revolution.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Total fertility rate is the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years (ages 15-49).
Voluntary Migration and Push-and-Pull Factors
Voluntary migration is when an individual chooses to move, typically based on various push and pull factors.
Pull factors are characteristics at a destination that draw a migrant to that place such as opportunities, and employment.
Push factors are characteristics at an individual's current location that make him or her want to leave such as high cost of living, lack of goods, unemployment.
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