Industiral Revolutioin notes
Terms in this set (58)
Many nobles resented the bourgeois because...
the bourgeoisie won government positions that had once been reserved for nobles.
Jacques Necker angered the First and Second Estates by proposing that...
taxes on clergy and nobles be raised.
Besides financial reform, what else drove the Third Estate to declare itself a National Assembly?
The Third Estate wanted political and social reform.
Why was the Bastille an important symbol to the French?
It represented the social injustice of the ancien regime.
What was the significance of the Paris Commune?
It could rally the citizens of Paris for protests
What was the main goal of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
to assure equality of all male citizens
Which type of government did the Constitution of 1791 establish?
a limited monarchy
How did France's social divisions in the late 1700s contribute to the French Revolution?
Members of the Third Estate were dissatisfied with social and economic inequality.
Why was the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, an important event in the French Revolution?
It challenged the king's authority.
Which of the following best describes France's government according to the Constitution of 1791?
a limited monarchy
Which best describes the impact of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen?
It put into practice ideals of the Enlightenment.
Which goal was most likely to be supported by both poor peasants and wealthy city merchants in the early years of the French Revolution?
an end to feudal privileges
Who were the Jacobins?
radical members of the Legislative Assembly who supported republican principles
How did France change under the National Assembly?
France became a republic.
Describe How did radicals such as Robespierre justify the use of terror?
They sought to preserve the republic from its enemies.
What stirred the sans-culottes to riot?
rising bread prices
Name one example of social reform during the French Revolution.
Slavery was abolished in France's colonies.
How did France's radical revolutionaries try to protect the revolution?
by dealing harshly with enemies of the revolution
Why did the radical Legislative Assembly declare war on Austria and then Prussia in 1792?
to spread the revolution and destroy other monarchies
Which of the following statements best explains the conditions that led to the Reign of Terror?
The Committee of Public Safety had absolute power.
How did the Directory's actions ultimately lead to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte?
The Directory was weak and corrupt.
What was one way that the French Revolution changed life in France?
It eliminated feudal class privileges.
Which of the following was most responsible for Napoleon's rise to power?
his reputation as a military leader
What did the Concordat of 1801 accomplish?
It kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics.
Which statement best describes the impact of the Napoleonic Wars on many of the nations France conquered?
Napoleon's armies backed liberal reforms in the lands they conquered.
How did nationalism impact Napoleon's conquest of Europe?
Many Europeans saw Napoleon and his armies as foreign oppressors and fought back to save their countries.
Which of the following best describes Napoleon's impact on Europe after the Napoleonic Wars?
He spread the ideals of the Revolution but failed to create a lasting French empire.
In what way did the Congress of Vienna try to limit French ambition?
It surrounded France with strong countries.
Which of the following was most responsible for Napoleon's rise to emperor of France?
a series of military victories against Austria
The Napoleonic Code was a reform of France's...
Why was Napoleon unable to successfully establish a French empire in Europe?
Most nations' people resented the imposition of French culture.
Which country was able to remain outside Napoleon's European empire?
The chief goal of the Congress of Vienna was to...
preserve peace through a balance of power.
Which of the following is one main reason the Industrial Revolution was a turning point in world history?
The traditional rural lifestyle ended for most people.
Why did the population of Britain increase in the mid-1700s?
Better farming led to a food surplus, so fewer people died of starvation.
What important contribution did James Watt make to the Industrial Revolution?
He perfected a new source of energy.
Who supplied the capital that helped Britain industrialize?
investors willing to take risks
Which sequence of events best describes the role of textile manufacturing in initiating industrialization?
Demand for cotton cloth grew, cottage industry developed, and machines replaced cottage industry.
Which statement best explains how transportation technology advanced the Industrial Revolution?
Rivers, ports, canals, and railroads aided the shipment of goods to many places.
What statement best describes the industrialization of other western nations after Britain?
Some nations learned about the new technology and had more resources than Britain so they could advance quickly.
How did enclosures contribute to the development of the Industrial Revolution?
They consolidated fields to gain larger pastures.
What was one of Britain's primary contributions to industrialism?
British inventors developed new machines for the textile industry that led to the factory system.
What was one way that James Watt's steam technology contributed to the Industrial Revolution?
Steam engines improved the shipping of goods and raw materials.
Why were the first factories more efficient than the earlier putting-out system?
They brought workers and machines together in one place.
Industrialization spread because...
other nations wanted to have the same economic opportunities that Britain enjoyed.
Which of the following statements about population trends during the Industrial Revolution is most accurate?
Demand for labor in factories was one cause of the population shift toward urban areas.
Which of the following supports the idea that the Industrial Revolution led to social change in Europe?
Entrepreneurs earned enough wealth to rise above the working class.
What statement best describes the lives of women who worked during the Industrial Revolution?
They worked 12 hours or more a day for half the pay of men, and they tended to the family and household when at home.
During the Industrial Revolution, how did economics drive political change?
The growing middle class demanded more democracy, so voting rights gradually expanded.
According to laissez-faire economists, what is the benefit of a free market?
As production increased, the supply of goods would also increase and prices would drop so more people could afford goods.
The main focus of utilitarianism was...
ensuring the greatest happiness through individual freedom for all classes.
Early socialism was most concerned with...
sharing all property and means of production.
According to Marx, what would be the main characteristic of communism?
a classless society in which wealth and power were equally shared.
Which of the following best describes the new middle class that emerged as a result of industrialization?
Many of its members owned and operated the businesses that hired urban workers.
Which statement best describes child labor during the early years of the Industrial Revolution?
Mines and text factories employed large numbers of children.
What was one long-term benefit of the Industrial Revolution?
In industrial countries, the overall standard of living improved.
Adam Smith defined the free market as an economic system in which...
the market functions with little or no government interference.
Socialism is based on the belief that...
the means of production should be shared by everyone in society.