Technology Education Praxis II
Terms in this set (122)
raised image areas are inked and transferred to paper (example: letterpress, flexography)
flat plate accepts ink and repels water. images are transferred from plates to cylinders and then to paper
etched area on plate is inked and transferred to paper
uses stencil pressed up against mesh screen on top of substrate
attaches toner to electrically charged image on paper
computer- generated image is sprayed in droplets onto paper
________ developed the movable type, which revolutionized book production and started the printing industry
used to enter data into the system (ex: keyboards, mice, microphones, web cams)
used to manipulate data (ex: central processing unit CPU, or microprocessor)
has ROM and RAM
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
contains the instructions that allow the computer to receive and manipulate data. this part of the memory cannot be changed
Random-Access Memory (RAM)
temporarily stores data and feed it to the CPU on command. RAM is constantly changing as the computer processes data.
displays and records results of the processing unit's actions (ex: monitors, printers and speakers)
simplest sketch- shows the front view as if a person is looking directly at it
sketch where object is drawn as if it is viewed from one corner, with each angle equaling 120 degrees
sketch that shows the object as the human eye or camera sees it
produced from needle-bearing trees, such as pine, cedar and fir. Used for construction purposes, for shipping containers and crates, and for railroad ties
is produced from deciduous, or leaf-bearing, trees that lose their leaves at the end of each growing season. Widely used for cabinetmaking and furniture making, for making shipping pallets, and for manufacturing household decorations and utensils.
this process gives materials shape by introducing liquid material into a mold
Casting and molding
this process applies force through a forming device to cause the material to change shape
the point at which the material does not return to its original shape
the range between the rest and yield point
range at which the material is bent, stretched or comprised
the point at which material breaks
3 things in common with all forming processes
forming device, application of force and material temperature
removes excess material by either machining or searing to make an object of the correct size and shape
changes internal properties to make material harder, softer, stronger or more easily worked
a simple product is created from multiple parts
holds plastic, metal, ceramic, and composite parts together. Uses cohesive and adhesive forces to hold parts together.
hold the molecules of one material together
hold different kinds of molecules together
uses heat or solvents to melt edges of the joint for bonding
uses metal alloy as a bonding agent
applies pressure and heat to the bond area. This method is used on plastics and metals
uses extreme pressure to squeeze the two parts to create a bond
uses substances with high adhesive forces to hold parts together
dipping the material into a solvent that removes unwanted materials. The clean part is then rinsed to remove the solvent
any coating that dries polymerization (hardening)
clear finish made from a mixture of oil, resin , solvent and a drying agent
varnish that has a color pigment added
solvent-based synthetic coating that dries through solvent evaporation
4 Types of automating and controlling processes:
robots, programmable logic controllers (PLCs), computer controlled machines, and artificial intelligence (AI) systems.
the largest amount of lumber is produced from ______
producing lumber and plywood are examples of ___________
plywood is more stable than solid lumber because
cross-grained layers in the plywood reduce warping and expansion
smelting is a ____________
strip at the bottom of framed wall
uprights nailed to sole plate. The length of these sets ceiling height
double ribbons of 2x4s at the top of the wall that the studs are nailed to
carry weight from the roof and ceilings across the window and door openings
shorter than regular studs, hold up the headers
rest on the outside walls and some interior walls and support the ceiling
interior walls that support the ceiling and roof
load baring walls
angles boards resting on the top plate of the exterior walls
triangle shaped structure including both the rafter and ceiling joist in one unit
plywood or particleboard that covers rafters or trusses OR plywood, fiberboard or rigid foam sheets that encloses the exterior walls
encloses the underside of the overhang of the roof
finishes the ends of the rafters and overhang
safe drinking water, starts with city or well water
carries waste away
Bridge that use concrete or steel beams to support the deck. Used when one road crosses another, like in the interstate highway system
bridge that uses small parts arranged in triangles to support the deck. These bridges can carry heavier loads over longer spans. Many railroad bridges are these bridges
bridge that uses curved members to support the deck. The arch can be above or below the deck
use trusses extending out in both directions from the support beams, similar to arms
use cables to carry the loads. A large cable is suspended from towers. From the large cables, smaller cables drop down to support the deck
built to recover salt and other minerals from seawater
used for controlling floods, supplying water, making recreational lakes, or generating electricity
lakeside is vertical, whereas other side slopes are outward. The sheer weight of the concrete the dam is made from holds the water back
similar to two gravity dams placed back to back, both sides slope outward
uses its structure to hold back the water
tall dams holding back large quantities of water
3 central characteristics of lightwaves
amplitude, wavelength, direction
the height of the wave. The height indicates the waves strength or intensity. It is measured from the center of the wave to the peak of the wave
______ is the distance from the beginning to the end of one wave cycle. Each hue, or color, has a set ________
refers to the path the light wave travels. Light waves travel in straight lines in all directions from their source.
generally used in a single building or site. A _____ connects several personal computers to a special computer called a server. The server is used to store programs and data for the network.
Local Area Networks (LAN)
networks that cover large geographical areas. They are used to connect computers in distant cities and countries. The largest _____ is the internet.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
network that home computers are connected to
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
fiber-optic communication lines connecting regions in the companies IT system
companies connection points in each region. These connection points let local users access the company's network. The _____ is often a toll-free phone number or a dedicated line.
Point of Presence (POP)
where the various communication companies connect their systems. ____ allow a customer of one company to connect with a customer of another company.
Network Access Points (NAPs)
specialized computers that determine how to send info from one computer to another
simple control system. uses no feedback to compare the results with the goal. requires human judgment
open loop control system
most technological systems are this type of control system. output information is used to adjust the processing actions or factor within a system or the entire system
closed loop control system
outer, stationary magnet
inner electromagnet that can rotate
the electric motor is based on the laws of
magnetism and electromagnetism
electrical generator used in automobiles
gasoline and diesel engines are two common
internal combustion engines
A four stroke engine moves the piston up and down twice to produce a power stroke. The four actions are
intake stroke, compression stroke, power stroke, exhaust stroke
a physical model showing people how a product will look (style, color, or other aesthetic features)
a functioning model of a system or product generally built in the same material as the final project
these minerals have a metal chemically combined with other elements
the most abundant fossil fuel and is found on every continent.
3 basic structural units in a transportation system
a passenger or operator unit, a cargo unit and a power unit.
most land transportation vehicles move along their pathways on rolling wheels using two systems to produce the rotation: power generation and power transmission
keeps the vehicle in contact with the road or rail.
3 major parts of suspension systems
wheels, axles, springs/shocks
structure of a vessel
all ships have two basic parts: the hull forms the shell that allows the ship to float and contain a load, and the superstructure is the part of the ship above the deck that contains the bridge and crew or passenger accommodations.
suspension of a vessel
the upward force exerted on an object immersed in fluid
In order for an object to float,
the buoyant force must be equal to the weight of the object
The structure of lighter-than-air vehicles
use either a light gas (such as helium) or hot air to produce lift
The structure of fixed-wing aircraft-
most passenger and cargo aircraft today is this type
the flight crew, passenger and cargo units are contained in this body. One or more wings attached to the _____ provide the lift necessary to fly.
provides steering capability for the aircraft
two major types of propulsion systems airplanes use
propellers and jet engines
developed during WWII, operates at high speeds and is used in military aircraft. Early commercial and jet airliners also used these engines.
choice for most commercial aircraft in use today, operates at lower speeds and than turbojet engine and uses less fuel to produce the same power.
operates in the same manner as a turbojet engine and also drives a prop providing the thrust to move the aircraft. They operate more efficiently at low speeds than the other two. They are widely used on commuter aircraft.
newer jet engine, differs in that two props are driven, operating in opposite directions. These are fuel efficient while operating at higher speeds.
causes plane to more forward
this force holds or lifts the craft in the air
the air-resistance force opposing the vehicles forward motion (back of aircraft)
the pull of gravity causing the craft to descend (body of aircraft)
various instruments that help the pilots monitor and control the aircraft properly
Work (in ft-lbs)=
force or weight (in lbs) x distance (in ft)
Metric Work (in joules) =
force or weight (in newtons) x distance (in meters)