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AP Euro Terms
Terms in this set (80)
traffic in ecclesiastical offices or preferments, buying and selling of sacraments and offices.
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
sale of indulgences
This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money
clergy was ignorant; many preached in Latin that they couldn't read or understand
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
In Praise of Folly
book written by Erasmus that poked fun at the prominent people of society using satire to make fun of the wealth-centered Church and its heads
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.
He defeated Luther in the Leipzig Debate over indulgences in July 1519. He forced Luther to deny authority of popes and councils.
"priesthood of all believers"
as long as one believes in god then he doesnt need the church to have a personal relationship with god
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Confessions of Augsburg
an attempted compromise of religous faith between Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE. The statement was rejected by the Catholic princes, but became traditional statement of the Lutheran Church. The statement included the ideas of salvation through faith alone, the bible as the sole authority and priesthood of all believers.
a friend who helped luther help translate the bible into german
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
A group of German peasants that took up arms against their wealthy landowners. Luther did not approve
1525 - writen by representatives of the Swabian peasants in a Greman city, expressed their grievances, summarized the agarian crisis of the early 16th century
League of Schmalkalden
in Northern Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
five wars between 1521 and 1555 between France and the Hapsburgs, France tried to keep Germany divided, played an important role in retarding unification of German states
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler, granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
John of Leyden
: led a radical group of Anabaptists to take control of the northwestern German city of Munster. He had 16 wives.
Tragedy at Munster
Protestants and Catholics capture city and execute anabaptist leaders
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity
a member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in an individual; deny the idea of the Holy Trinity
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Colloquy at Marburg
Zwingli officially split with Luther over issue of Eucharist
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or "visible saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.
Became home to protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540
a Spaniard who was among the chief thinkers for the Anti-Trinitarians. He was executed in 1553 in Geneva for "blasphemies against the Holy Trinity." This thinker was among the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially its belief in original sin and predestination and has a deserved reputation of defending religious tolerance.
Protestant work ethic
the idea that hard work and material success are signs of God's favour.
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
a branch of the Protestant reformation that grew in Scotland, many of their ideas are rooted in Calvinism. They believed in a method of church governance where there were no bishops
Dutch Reformed Church
United Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
Translated the English Bible n 1526, and executed because English Bibles made their way to England.
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
In Defense of the Seven Sacraments
A book written by King Henry III of England, criticizing Luther's views on the Catholic Church. This was written in a time of heightened power of the Catholic Church in England; kings had the power to appoint bishops. Earned him the title of "Defender of the Faith":
Catherine of Aragon
Wife of King Henry VIII. Queen of England. Produced Henry a daughter. Divorce was the initial step of Reformation in England. First married to Henry's brother.
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
replaced Wolsey and convinced Henry in 1533 that he could divorce Catherine by breaking away from Rome, prepared the first book of common prayer
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Pilgrimage of Grace
An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power.
Statute of the Six Articles
upheld the seven sacraments, maintained Catholic theology, and replaced the authority of the pope with that of the monarch; Anglican Church maintained most of the catholic doctrines
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics
Protestants who fled England during the reign of Mary I. They settled in Germany and Switzerland and worshiped in their own congregations, wrote contracts justifying armed resistance and waited for a time when a Protestant counteroffensive could be launched in their homelands.
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
Thirty Nine Articles
written in 1563, this defined the rules of the Anglican Church. The document followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
Katerina von Bora
German Catholic nun who became the wife of Martin Luther
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to proved education and religious training
Teresa de Avila
Spanish leader of the reform movement for monasteries and convents. Believed an individual could have a direct relationship with God through prayer and contemplation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Index of Prohibited Books
Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Church were banned. Possession could be severe
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
founded the society of jesus resisted the spread of protestantism spiritual exercises
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
employed torture, for heresy was regarded as the supreme crime, and all persons charged with crim could be tortured, in civil as well as ecclesiastical courts, under the existing laws
art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation, characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit
a baroque architect and sculptor. Made the Colonnade for piazza in from of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and was his greatest architectural work, and the Canopy over the high altar of St. Peter's Cathedral, and the altarpiece The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, that shows a lot of emotion
St. Peter's square
Designed by Bernini
Canopy over St. Peter's Tomb
Baroque art, designed by Bernini
Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Statue by Bernini, central piece in Roman Cathedral
Italian painter-1st important painter of Baroque era-depicted highly emotional scenes
Peter Paul Rubens
prolific Flemish baroque painter
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