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in sexually reproducing species, the number of chromosomes in a zygote is diploid as a direct result of what 2 processes?
meiosis and fertilization
what is the relationship between chromosomes, genes, and nuclei?
chromosome- each chromosome is composed of many genes
genes- are composed of DNA
nuclei- contains the chromosomes, genes as well
a polypeptide is made at a ribosome attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. trace the pathway it follows to leave the cell.
ribosome-rough er-vesicle-golgi apparatus-vesicle-cell membrane-exocytosis
to produce large tomatoes that are resistant to cracking and splitting, some seed companies use the pollen from one variety of tomato plant to fertilize a different variety of tomato plant. What is this process an example of?
what is the relationship between cells, DNA, and proteins?
cells- contain all the organelles including the nucleus that holds the DNA. the cell follows the instructions of the DNA
DNA- contains the instructions to make proteins that direct cell activities
proteins- carry out the instructions provided by the nucleus
what is true of both mitosis and meiosis?
both involve the separation of the nucleus and DNA into daughter cells
down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in the body cells of humans. What causes this extra chromosome to be present?
a point mutation occurs during DNA replication; more specifically, a substitution of an A for a T occurs. there is no change in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide. which type of mutation is this?
which species would have the best chance of survival if there is a change in the environment? why? *bacteria table
species A, because it has the most variety and is the most likely to have an adaptation suited for the new environment
a species of bird known as Bird of Paradise has been observed in the jungles of New Guinea. the males shake their bodies and sometimes hang upside down to show off their bright colors and long feathers to attract females. females usually mate with the "flashiest" males. these observations can be used to support the concept that:
A. some organisms are better adapted for asexual reproduction
B. behaviors that lead to reproductive success have evolved
C. homeostasis in an organism is influenced by physical characteristics
D. unusual courtship behaviors lead to extinction
the answer is b
when is extinction of a species most likely to occur?
when the environment changes and there is little to no variation in a species
the graph below represents the populations of two different species in an ecosystem over a period of several years.
what could describe the information shown in the graph to the left?
species B is better adapted to this environment than species A
what process is shown in the figure below? describe the outcome.
this is meiosis and it has produced 4 haploid cells
the diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis
what can the process above be used to explain?
crossing over explains why there is so much variation in offspring and why some offspring look very different from their parents
what phase is shown above? be specific.
telophase of mitosis because the cell is separating and it contains two copies of each chromosome. it has two nuclei forming
mitosis and meiosis are processes by which animal and plant cells divide. which is a difference between mitosis and meiosis?
mitosis produces genetically identical daughter cells and meiosis produces 4 haploid daughter cells
DNA replication and protein synthesis occurs in a cell. what is the correct order of the events involved for the genetic information to contribute to phenotypic expression?
DNA->mRNA->rRNA->tRna->amino acids->protein expresses trait
what is the relationship between DNA, genes, alleles and chromosomes?
DNA- DNA contains the nucleotides for information based on the order
genes- genes are made of DNA
alleles- are different forms of genes, also called traits
chromosomes-contain all the genes, maybe be several hundred genes on a chromosome
if an individual has one iA and one iB allele, what type of inheritance pattern would the genotype represent?
which process is described below?
"Messenger RNA is bound by the ribosome ->tRNA molecules are coded for by the mRNA ->tRNA molecules carry specific amino acids
cell undergoing mitosis
p= 60 q=30 c=15
which pair of structures is analogous?
bird and moth
3 mutation genes
substitution- 1 base is changed to a different
insertion- nucleotide is added
deletion- nucleotide is deleted
sickle cell anemia
huntingtons disease, fragile X
what are two main cell processes that would be affected by the cell growing to large?
1. DNA cant meet all the cells demands
2. exchange of materials slows
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
interphase, prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase and cytokinesis 1, prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase and cytokinesis 2
2 sets, 2N
1 set, N
both meiosis and mitosis
start with replicating chromosomes
separation of genetic material meiosis
daughter cells end with 1 chromosome (haploid), genetically different from parent cell, 4 haploid cells
separation of genetic material mitosis
daughter cells end with 1 complete set of chromosomes (diploid), genetically identical to parent cell, 2 daughter cells
phenotypes produced are both expressed in heterozygous form
some alleles are dominant or recessive
codominant and multiple alleles
many genes and controlled by 2 or more genes ex. skin color
traits passed along with sex chromosomes (X or Y)
location of transcription
location of translation
similar function, different structure
natural selection principles
variations, overproduction of offspring, adaptations, descent with modification
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