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Theories of Personality Exam 2
Terms in this set (164)
Where was Carl Jung Born?
What 4 subjects did Carl Jung study in school?
Archaeology, Psychiatry, Ancient Mythologies and Occult, Eastern Religions
What influenced Carl Jung's interest in Sigmund Freud?
He read "Interpretation of Dreams"
Where did Freud see his relationship with Carl Jung leading?
A paternal relationship with Freud as a father figure
When and where did Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud meet?
1906 at Freud's house in Vienna
What was Jung's reaction when he found out Freud wanted to be a father-like figure in his life?
He wasn't interested and realized Freud needed him more than he needed Freud
Who was Eugen Bleuler?
Swiss Psychiatrist who studied with Jean-Martin Charcot
What 3 terms did Eugen Bleuler coin as labels for mental disorders?
Schizophrenia (dementia praecox), Autism, Ambivalence (Therapeutic)
What was Jung's relationship with Sabrina Spielrein?
Her Therapist, Her Instructor, Her Colleague, Her Lover
What major life change did Jung's relationship with Sabrina Spielrein cause?
His separation of study from Eugen Bleuler
What branch of Psychology did Carl Jung conceptualize?
What terms did Carl Jung label?
Anima, Animus, Archetype, Collective Unconscious, Extroversion, Introversion, Individuation, Shadow, Word Associations
What is the basic concept of Analytical Psychology?
What is Anima?
Female component of the Male Psyche
Unconscious feminine psychological qualities males possess
What is Animus?
Male component of Female Psyche
Unconscious masculine psychological qualities females possess
What are Anima and Animus?
Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious
What leads to the suppression of Anima and Animus?
How are Anima and Animus manifested in Art?
In 'nudes' with muscular males and busty females
How are Anima and Animus used in everyday life?
Influences our attitudes and how we relate with other men and women
What are Archetypes?
Inherited dispositions to behave emotionally toward worldly events
What makes up the Collective Unconscious?
All archetypes taken together
How are Archetypes created and used?
Formed from Ancient/Archaic images
Combine to form substrate of symbols
They organize how we experience events
What did Carl Jung label as Freud's idea of the unconscious?
What are the 2 Domains of Jungian Unconscious?
What is Personal Unconscious?
Repressed memories from individual past experiences
What is Collective Unconscious?
Contents and images shared with people of all times and cultures
Reflects humanity's collective evolutionary and experimental history
From where is the Collective Unconscious gained and what is its relevance?
Collection of Predispositions which evolves Biologically and Psychologically
What is Shadow?
The primitive, socially unacceptable part of the Unconscious
Otherwise known as Freud's 'ID'
What are the 2 extremes of Jung's Sociability scale?
Introversion and Extroversion
What is Extroversion?
Predispositions to be orientated to things from Outside the Self
What are some traits of an Extrovert?
Confident, Outgoing, Gregarious
What is Introversion?
Predisposition toward inward reflection and orientation of one's own experiences and feelings
What are some traits of an Introvert?
Quiet, Subjective, Non-Social
What test is based upon Carl Jung's Sociability Scale?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test?
Testing instrument to measure Introversion and Extroversion
At what point in the lifespan is Sociability manifested?
Where was Alfred Adler born?
What branch of Psychology did Alfred Adler conceptualize?
What ordinal order did Alfred Adler fall into with his siblings?
3rd of 6
What was Alfred Adler's health as a child?
Very sickly with a series of serious illness
What personal factors influenced Alfred Adler's theories?
His sickly disposition as a child and negative self-esteem as fat and ugly
His Domineering and Marxist Socialist wife
His little brother's death
His Jewish blood and Christian faith
What were Alfred Adler's specialties within Psychology?
Family and Community Counseling
What did Alfred Adler study in Medical School?
Ophthalmology and Psychiatry
Why were Alfred Adler's clinics closed in the 1930's?
Because of spreading Nationalist Socialism
How did Alfred Adler's theories differ from Freud's?
Freud - Individuals are in conflict with one another and themselves - Interiority - Biology/Physiology
Adler - Individuals seek companionship, cooperation, and harmony for themselves and with others - Exteriority - Socio/Cultural
How was Adler introduced to Freud?
He read "Interpretation of Dreams"
Then wrote an article defending Freudian theory
Finally invited to attend Freud's Wednesday night discussion
What differs Alfred Adler from other Psychoanalysts?
He never studied under Freud or underwent Psychoanalysis himself, which were prerequisites
What did Freud's Wednesday night discussion group turn into?
Vienna Psychoanalytic Society
What was Alfred Adler's relationship with Freud?
One of his earliest colleagues
What was Adler's relationship with the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society?
He became President in 1910
What theme does Individual Psychology promote?
What are the main thesis points of Individual Psychology?
Social urges dominate over biological and instinctual urges
Conscious thoughts prevail over the unconscious
People are motivated to compensate for inferiority/inadequacy
Pathology develops when people overcompensate
Where does Inferiority lie within Individual Psychology?
Within the Conscious
What major contribution did Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology provide to the understanding of family?
Different personalities of Birth/Ordinal order
What understandings does Individual Psychology give to the First-born child?
Independent and strives for status
Must adjust to sharing parents after a period of time being the only child
What understandings does Individual Psychology give to the Second-born or Middle child?
Born into sibling rivalry and competition
Equipped for competing and striving
What understandings does Individual Psychology give to the Last-born or youngest child?
Pampered 'Baby' of the household
Several role models leads pressure to succeed everywhere
Generally the 'Clown' of the household
What is Individual Psychology's concept of Inter-sib interval?
The distance between births is important and affects sibling interaction
What are common traits which Individual Psychology gives for siblings 1 year apart?
Have common needs
Must share finite resources
More sibling rivalry
What are common traits which Individual Psychology gives for siblings 4 years apart?
Have different needs
Lack of sharing provides abundant resources
Less sibling rivalry
What is an important factor which helps decide Sibling Rivalry or Sibling Coherence?
How much preparation a child has made for the new sibling
How does Individual Psychology label a parents role for a child?
Sets an example for all roles a child will experience in life
IE: male/femaleness, father/mother, intimacy/distance
Lays foundation for a child's adult behavior and relationships
What are 4 main areas of concern for Alfred Adler?
What are a few important factors for determining Inferiority or Superiority?
Power - Children must ask for everything from authority figure
Position - Everyone is in an alpha position over children
Coping - Children strive to vent feelings to gain superiority
Repression - Feelings of insecurity are internalized
What happens when feelings of Inferiority are internalized?
They are embedded within the psyche
Carried into adulthood as self-definition and self-concept
Can become a Complex
What does Individual Psychology define as a Complex?
a group or system of related ideas and impulses that have a common emotional tone and exert a strong unconscious influence upon attitudes and behavior
What is an Inferiority Complex?
An individual's exaggerated feelings of incompetence
What results from a person's Inferiority Complex?
An overwhelming sense of helplessness
What might help create an Inferiority Complex?
An experience that leaves a person feeling helpless or powerless
What vicissitudes are presented with an Inferiority Complex?
Feelings of inadequacy
Feeling less than equal with interacting individuals
Why are people with an Inferiority Complex easily offended?
Comments may lead to hurt feelings and anger
The person may suffer Depression
What is a Superiority Complex?
An exaggerated arrogance developed to overcome an Inferiority Complex
Why do people tend to develop a Superiority Complex?
Arrogant people are often insecure and overcompensate which creates a Superiority Complex
What personality type is common among those with a Superiority Complex?
What is the task of Adlerian Psychotherapy?
Promote a sense of Social Well-Being and Mental Well-Being
To figure out how one interacts with others
To figure out what makes a person feel uncomfortable
What is the viewpoint an Adlerian Psychotherapist has with a patient?
A Non-Pathological Viewpoint
What does a Non-Pathological view mean?
Therapist does not use pathological diagnoses
Disorders instead are consequences of relationships and interactions
How does an Adlerian Psychotherapist assist a patient?
Plays Facilitator role
Patient tells their life story and begins to understand own perspectives and dynamics
Therapist helps Patient understand and challenge their 'life-story' so the Patient can gain relief and insight
What are the Therapeutic applications of Adlerian Psychotherapy?
What is the typical setting of an Adlerian-style Psychotherapy session and why is it used?
2 chairs sitting face-to-face
Promotes equality over authority
What branch of Psychology did Karen Horney conceptualize?
What was Karen Horney's philosophy?
Life is a very effective therapist
What does Karen Horney mean when she said "Life is a very effective therapist"?
You learn from the consequences of your own choices
Consequences shape your life experiences
Where did Karen Horney believe that most conflict originates?
When trying to get along with others
Why did Karen Horney believe that everyone needs self-insight?
So that one can see what he/she is contributing to the conflict in a situation
Where was Karen Horney born?
Who was Franz Alexander?
Father of Psychoanalytic Medicine, Chicago Institute of Psychoanalysis
Why did Karen Horney ease herself away from Psychoanalysis?
She deviated from orthodox Freudian Theory, specifically Oedipal Experience
How did Karen Horney differ in philosophy from Freud?
Believed in Socio-Cultural context rather than Psycho-Sexual
What does Epi-Genetic Mean?
What happens at an earlier stage affects what happens at a later stage
What were some main points within the Thesis/Theory developed by Karen Horney?
There are major problems in monogamous marriage
Sexes wanting to marry the opposite sex is symbolic of relationship with parent
Husband or wife is 'substitute' for parent
Inhibited incestuous desires are expressed in marital relations
What is 'Penis Envy' as coined by Karen Horney?
Traumatic experience for girls is discovering they do not have a penis
Wish to have one and become jealous of men who do
Wish to have male children so can symbolically have a penis
What is 'Womb Envy' as coined by Karen Horney?
Males envious of women because they cannot get pregnant
Males cannot feed or nurture children so they depreciate women
Must continue to prove manhood to women as overcompensation
What is 'Impotence'?
The inability or difficulty in sexually performing
What does Karen Horney believe happens when a man suffers Impotence?
Leads him to experience anxiety and inadequacy
Leads him to fantasize about size of his penis
Attempt to possess women
Feels insecure and does not pursue superior or equal women
Caters to prostitution
Why does Karen Horney feel that women feel they are inferior to men?
Because they feel Culturally Inferior, not Biologically so
Men control power and privileges
Women wish to be masculine to share power and privileges
What does Karen Horney mean when she refers to something as 'Basic'?
It happens early in development
What does Karen Horney mean by the term "Basic Hostility"?
A feeling that a child experiences when safety and security are inconsistent, frustrated, and not gratified.
What symptoms does Karen Horney believe a child suffering "Basic Hostility" will experience?
Helplessness and Loneliness
Lacking social relationships to offer security and comfort
Not likely to be securely attached to parents
What does Karen Horney mean by the term "Basic Evil"?
Anything a caretaker does to undermine a child's security
What does Karen Horney mean by the term "Basic Anxiety"?
A psychological state that exists when Basic Hostility is repressed
A general feeling that other people and social situations are potentially dangerous
A person or child is helpless relative to social dangers
How does Karen Horney feel that childhood experiences affect Basic Hostility, Evil, and Anxiety?
They establish reference for anxiety
They are used as a foundation for other life experiences
A child experiences Basic Evil, then feels Basic Hostility, and forever endures Basic Anxiety
How does Karen Horney explain Neurosis?
Center of Gravity, lying at the core of Personality
What does a person seek in life according to Karen Horney?
Partner or Companionship
Social Recognition and Prestige
Sense of either Independence or Dependence
What are the 3 adjustment patterns labeled by Karen Horney?
What is a Compliant type personality according to Karen Horney?
Neurotic need for affection and approval
What is a Detached type personality according to Karen Horney?
Neurotic sense of self-sufficiency and independence
What is a Hostile type personality according to Karen Horney?
Neurotic striving for power so they can control and exploit others
What is an example of a Compliant Type personality as coined by Karen Horney?
What is an example of a Detached Type personality as coined by Karen Horney?
What is an example of a Hostile Type personality according to Karen Horney?
Where was Eric Erickson born?
What branch of Psychology did Eric Erickson conceptualize?
What differs Eric Erickson from other Psychoanalysts?
He was the first non-Physician therapist
Who Psychoanalyzed Eric Erickson?
Where was Eric Erickson certified for Psychoanalysis?
Vienna Psychoanalytic Society
What were Eric Erickson's 4 jobs after coming to the US?
Professor at Harvard Medical School
Professor at UC Berkeley
Professor at Yale Medical School
Professor at Austen Riggs Center
What was the Austen Riggs Center where Eric Erickson worked?
An Open Therapeutic Community which was Psychoanalysis oriented and treated Elitist Clients. Sponsored by Harvard and Yale.
What prompted Eric Erickson to study Native American tribes?
He wanted to see where Psychoanalysis fit in with Anthropology and integrate the two disciplines
What book did Eric Erickson write which was based upon his Naturalistic Observation of Native Americans?
"Childhood and Society"
What 2 Native American tribes did Eric Erickson study which inspired his book "Childhood and Society"?
Oglala in South Dakota
Yurok in Northern California
What style of society did Eric Erickson discover the Oglala to be?
Warriors and Hunters
What style of society did Eric Erickson discover the Yurok to be?
Fishermen and Farmers
What theory did Eric Erickson develop?
What is the basis for Erickson's Psycho-social theory?
Social and Cultural influences guide personality development
Merges External Socio-cultural and Internal Biologic theories
Influences progress a person through 1 of 8 stages
How did Erickson structure his Psycho-social theory?
By the use of 8 epi-genetic stages of development
Why did Eric Erickson's wife, Joan, create a 9th Psycho-social stage of development?
Because people started living longer, she picked up where Eric left off
What is Erickson's Epi-genetic Principle?
Life consists of 8 stages, looking forward, from birth until death
Sequence of stages are culturally influenced but genetically programmed
Each stage incorporates the characteristics of lessons learned from the previous stages
What is a Mid-Life Crisis?
Psyche is programmed to look backward around 40 years
Introspective time period reflecting on choices, decisions, and progress
What about the definition of Ego separated Erickson from Freud?
Freud believed Ego mediates Id, Super-Ego, and reality
Erickson believed Ego is an Initiator, not a responder
Erickson believed Ego attempts to establish and maintain a sense of identity and mater the environment
What are the 8 stages of Erickson's Psycho-Social theory and how do they compare to Freud's stages?
Oral - Basic Trust vs Mistrust
Anal - Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Phallic - Initiative vs Guilt
Latency - Industry vs Inferiority
Genital - Identity vs Role Confusion
Young Adulthood - Intimacy vs Isolation
Adulthood - Gererativity vs Stagnation
Maturity - Ego Integrity vs Despair
Describe Erickson's first stage for infancy.
Trust vs Mistrust
Birth - 18 Months
Feeding is the important event
Children develop trust with caregiver reliability, care, and affection
Describe Erickson's second stage for Early Childhood.
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Toilet training is the important event
Children develop sense of personal control over physical skills and sense of independence
Describe Erickson's third stage for Preschool.
Initiative vs Guilt
Exploration is Important event
Children begin asserting control and power over their environment
Describe Erickson's fourth stage for School Age.
Industry vs Inferiority
School is important event
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands
Describe Erickson's fifth stage for Adolescence.
Identity vs Role Confusion
Social Relationships are important event
Teens develop sense of self and personal identity
Describe Erickson's sixth stage for Young Adulthood.
Intimacy vs Isolation
Relationships are important event
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relations with others
Describe Erickson's seventh stage for Adulthood.
Generativity vs Stagnation
Work and Parenthood are important events
Adults create and nurture that which will outlast them, often through children or a positive change for the benefit of others
Describe Erickson's eighth stage for Maturity
Ego Integrity vs Despair
Reflection on Life is Important event
Older adults look back on life and feel sense of fulfillment
What was Joan Erickson's 9th stage for End of Life?
Despair and Disgust vs Integrity
Generotranscendence is important event
Accepting old age, getting through the day, having basic trust for caregivers
What is Generotranscendence?
Age where an elder person is ready to move on to the next stage of existence.
Compared to Freud's theory, the neo-Freudian theories generally are
A. more comprehensive and explain more behaviors
B. more pessimistic about behavior
C. less biased interpretation of data
D. more concerned with social aspects of personality development
More comprehensive than Freud's and try to explain a wider range of behaviors.
The collective unconscious results from ________ human experiences.
A(n) _________ can be defined as an inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain categories of experience.
D. Transcendent Function
Attempts to empirically validate Jung's theory have concentrated mainly on his concept of
A. The Collective Unconscious
The amount of energy in a system is essentially fixed, and if it is removed from one part of a system, it will surface in another. This statement describes the principle of
According to Adler, one's _______ represents one's subjective starting point in life.
A. Birth Order
C. Safeguarding Strategies
D. First Memories
Adler left the biological sciences and entered psychology when he developed the concept of
B. Organ Inferiority
C. Feelings of Inferiority
Feelings of Inferiority
Of all the birth orders, Adler believed that the _______ born was the best off.
Freud introduced the idea of "penis envy" to explain the personality development of young girls. By introducing the concept of "womb envy", Karen Horney was suggesting that
A. men are as dissatisfied with themselves as women
B. men are as conflicted as children over wanting a womb like mother has
C. women are ultimately superior to men because they bear children
D. each gender has attributes that the other admires
each gender has attributes that the other admires
Samantha is anxious about socializing with others and she acts so funny toward her peers when they invite her to go out with them that they have stopped asking. Which interaction style does Samantha display, according to Horney?
A. Moving toward people
B. Moving away from people
C. Moving against people
D. Moving without people
Moving away from people
Erikson talked about people encountering crises in personality development. Which of the following is correct about his description of a crisis?
A. How we resolve the crisis determines the direction our personality develops
B. A crisis interrupts the natural development of personality until it is resolved
C. People face an unlimited number of potential crises as they pass through personality development
D. Crises usually don't occur until after age 5
How we resolve the crisis determines the direction our personality develops
According to Horney, females may sometimes appear to wish to be more masculine. What they really want is
B. To freely participate in their culture
C. The same privileges that males have
D. All of the above
The same privileges that males have
Which of the following adjustment patterns does the compliant type use?
A. Moving toward people
B. Moving away from people
C. Moving against people
D. Moving among people
Moving toward people
Concerning the satisfaction of what Horney called the "10 neurotic needs", what distinguishes the neurotic from the normal person?
A. The normal person will tend to concentrate on one of the needs and exclude the others
B. The neurotic will tend to concentrate on one of the needs and exclude the others
C. The normal person does not have neurotic needs
D. The normal person and the neurotic are about the same
The neurotic will tend to concentrate on one of the needs and exclude the others
Final theoretical position was that healthy adults seek
B. A perfect or superior society
D. Admiration from their peers
Admiration from their peers
D. Otto Rank
D. Otto Rank
D. Otto Rank
D. Otto Rank
D. Otto Rank
What does Erikson mean by Crisis Resolution?
At each stage there is a task that must be resolved to result into a healthy personality
What is the optimal resolution to personality in the opinion of Erickson?
A positive personal identity and sense of 'self'
Positive social and interpersonal skills
A sense of self-esteem and self-concept
Inner view of the ability to achieve and succeed
Allowing inhibitions to guide rather than rule
Strong and adaptable ego
What is the worst resolution to personality in the opinion of Erickson?
No clear identity of self and/or role confusion
Inability to establish and maintain any relationships
Negative self-concept and self-esteem
Weak and inflexible ego
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