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intrinsic reward

The personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals.

extrinsic reward

Something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include pay increases,praise, and promotions.

scientific management

Studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques.

time-motion studies

Studies,begun by Frederick Taylor,of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to a task.

principle of motion economy

Theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions.

Hawthorne effect

The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety,social,and esteem needs to self-actualization needs.


In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors,job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.

hygiene factors

In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased.

job enrichment

A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the wroker through the job itself.

job enlargement

A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.

job rotation

A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another.

goal-setting theory

The idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions.

management by objectives (MBO)

A system of goal setting and implementation that involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers,supervisors, and employees.

expectancy theory

Victor Vroom's theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome.

reinforcement theory

Theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways.

equity theory

The idea that employees try to maintain quity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions.

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