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biology : evolution test review pt 2
Terms in this set (70)
what is biological evolution?
change over time
what is macroevolution?
organisms are descendents from a common ancestor
what is microevolution?
change in allele numbers between generations
what is linnaeus responsible for?
developing a classification system grouped by characteristics
what is buffon responsible for?
proposed the species shared a common ancestor rather than arising seperately
who is erasmus darwin and what is he responsible for?
charles darwin's grandfather and he proposed that organisms evolved due to competition
what is lamarck responsible for?
said that environmental change caused evolution (ex : giraffe necks longer from generation to generation because they reached for higher food)
what are the three theories of geologic change?
catastrophism, gradualism, and uniformitarianism
volcanoes and floods shaped earth and caused species to become extinct
gradual changes over time
the gradual changes that shape earth are constant through time
t/f lyell (uniformitarianism) influenced darwin
differences among organisms of the same group
variation exists between the ________________ traits of the individuals.
a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment
which organisms will become more prevalent through generations?
ones with advantages
what is likely to happen to organisms that have a harder time obtaining food, water, shelter, or oxygen?
humans change a species by breeding it for specific traits
individuals that have advantageous adaptations produce more offspring than unfit/other individual
what are the 4 main principles of natural selection?
descent with modification
descent with modification
natural selection can produce populations that have different structures from their parents. each successive species will have those traits with modification.
one type of organism that can reproduce and have fertile offspring
all members of a species that live in an area
ability of a trait to be passed down through generations
measure of the ability to survive and reproduce
remains of organisms that lived in the past
fossils of species that existed between the common ancestor and today's species
study of the distribution of organisms around the world
similar in structure but different function
similar function not the same structure
what do analogous structures show?
not that the organisms are closely related but that they have similar needs and traits to the demands of the environment
remnants of physical structures belived to have had a function in an early ancestor
what are three examples of vestigial structures?
-pelvis in whales
-comparison of amino acid sequences and order of DNA
-studies of genetic and molecular biology supported evolution
genetic variation in a population ____________________ the chance that some individuals will survive
where is genetic variation stored?
in a population's gene pool
total number of alleles of all individuals in a population
what are the two sources of genetic variation?
mutation and recombination
different combinations of alleles during meiosis
a measure of how frequent an allele is in a population
when does hardy-weinburg genetic equilibrium occur?
when there is no change in the gene pool within a population
what are the 5 conditions required to maintian genetic equilibrium?
1. no gene flow
2. no genetic drift
3. no natural selection
4. large populations
5. random mating
what are the 5 conditions required for evolution?
1. gene flow
2. genetic drift
3. natural selection
4. small populations
5. non-random mating
what does natural selection act on?
distribution of traits
frequency is high near the middle and decreases at each extreme
t/f equal chance of survival shows a natural distribution
frequency is high near one extreme
frequency is highes in the middle and nonexistant at both extremes
frequency is high at both extremes and leads to speciation
movement of alleles from one population to another
gene flow ________________ genetic variation of the recieving population
random change in frequency of alleles of a population over time
what are some characteristics of genetic drift?
-occurs in small populations
-due to chance
-can be caused by random chance
bottle neck effect
occurs after a destructive event and leaves only a few organisms
bottle neck effect ___________________ genetic variation
small number of individuals colonize a new area
females choose their mates based on specific traits
males display certain traits to attract the female
competition among males
process of forming a new species from an existing species
individuals cannot mate from an existing species
differences in mating behaviors
physical barriers like formation of a canyon or river changing course
timing prevents mating
when isolation occurs, genetic variation and natural selection ______________ the difference between the organisms. this leads to ________________
increases ; speciation
unrelated species produce similar structures and behaviors
what is a result of convergent evolution?
a number of species arise from a common ancestor and occurs over many generations
two or more species change in response to changes in each other
disappearance of a species when the species is unable to adapt to its changing environment
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