APUSH U6: Chp 21
Terms in this set (27)
Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Junction)
First major battle of the Civil War and a victory for the South, it dispelled Northern illusions of swift victory.
Union general George B. McClellan's failed effort to seize Richmond, the Confederate capital. Had McClellan taken Richmond and toppled the Confederacy, slavery would have most likely survived in the South for some time.
Confederate ironclad whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. This ship and the Monitor fought a historic though inconsequential battle in 1862.
Union ironclad whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. This ship and the Merrimack fought a historic though inconsequential battle in 1862.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Civil War battle that ended in a decisive victory for Confederate general Robert E. Lee, who was emboldened to push further into the North.
Battle of Antietam
Landmark battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the prowess of the Union army, forestalling foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
Declared all slaves in rebelling states to be free but did not affect slavery in nonrebelling Border States. The proclamation closed the door on possible compromise with the South and encouraged thousands of Southern slaves to flee to Union lines.
Constitutional amendment prohibiting all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude. Former Confederate states were required to ratify the amendment prior to gaining reentry into the Union.
Battle of Fredericksburg
Decisive victory in Virginia for Confederate Robert E. Lee, who successfully repelled a Union attack on his lines.
Battle of Gettysburg
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines.
Abraham Lincoln's oft-quoted speech, delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg battlefield. In the address, Lincoln framed the war as a means to uphold the values of liberty.
Battle of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Key victory for Union general Ulysses S. Grant, it secured the North's hold on Kentucky and paved the way for Grant's attacks deeper into Tennessee.
Battle of Shiloh
Bloody Civil War battle on the Tennessee-Mississippi border that left more than twenty-three thousand soldiers dead, wounded, or missing, and ended in a marginal Union victory.
Siege of Vicksburg
Two-and-a-half-month siege of a Confederate fort on the Mississippi River in Tennessee. It finally fell to Ulysses S. Grant in July of 1863, giving the Union army control of the Mississippi River and splitting the South in two.
Union general William Tecumseh Sherman's destructive march through Georgia. An early instance of "total war," purposely targeting infrastructure and civilian property to diminish morale and undercut the Confederate war effort.
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War
Established by Congress during the Civil War to oversee military affairs. Largely under the control of radical Republicans, the committee agitated for a more vigorous war effort and actively pressed Lincoln on the issue of emancipation.
Northern Democrats who obstructed the war effort by attacking Abraham Lincoln, the draft, and, after 1863, emancipation.
Formed by moderate Whigs and Know-Nothings in an effort to elect a compromise candidate and avert a sectional crisis.
Site where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865 after almost a year of brutal fighting throughout Virginia in the "Wilderness Campaign."
Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson
(1824-1863) Daring Confederate general and brilliant tactician, who routinely took men on long marches to outflank Union lines. He led his troops to victory at the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and protected Virginia's Shenandoah Valley from Northern invasion in the first year of the Civil War. Joining Lee at Richmond, he helped halt the Union's Peninsula Campaign in 1862. He was killed by friendly fire at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863.
(1826-1885) Union general in command of the Army of the Potomac from 1861 to 1862, he led the failed Peninsula Campaign in 1861 and later fought Lee to a virtual stalemate at Antietam. He boosted the morale and confidence of his troops but tested Lincoln's patience by routinely hesitating to send men into battle. In 1864, he ran against Lincoln as the Democratic nominee, campaigning against emancipation and the harsh treatment of the South while repudiating the antiwar stance of the Copperheads.
Robert E. Lee
(1807-1870) Confederate general in command of the Confederate army during the Civil War. A bold tactician, he kept his army on the offensive throughout most of the war, skillfully outmaneuvering Union armies in key battles. His fortunes reversed after his defeat at Gettysburg, though he continued to battle Union forces throughout Virginia until his surrender at Appomattox. After the war, he was indicted for treason but never charged, and he actively worked to bring about a peaceful reunion of North and South.
(1825-1875) Confederate general who led the bold but ill-fated charge against Union forces at Gettysburg.
Ulysses S. Grant
(1822-1885) Ohio-born Union general and eighteenth president of the United States. During the war, he won Lincoln's confidence for his boldness and his ability to stomach the steep casualties that victory required. First assigned to the West, he attained Union victories at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and Vicksburg, seizing control of the Mississippi River and splitting the South in two. After taking command of the Union army, he fought Lee in a series of bloody battles in Virginia, culminating in Lee's surrender at Appomattox. As president, he took a hard line against the South, but economic turmoil and waning support for Reconstruction undermined his efforts.
William Tecumseh Sherman
(1820-1891) Union general who led the destructive march through Georgia in 1864. A pioneer practitioner of "total war," he advocated bringing war to the civilian population to undercut morale and destroy supplies destined for Confederate troops.
(1820-1871) Democratic congressman from Ohio who led the Copperhead faction of the party in opposition to the Civil War. Convicted by a military tribunal for his treasonous outbursts, he was banished to the South, though he later made his way to Canada and made an unsuccessful bid for the Ohio governorship.
John Wilkes Booth
(1838-1865) Maryland-born actor and Confederate sympathizer who assassinated Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theater on April 14, 1865. He died of a gunshot wound a week later after refusing to surrender to federal troops, though it is unclear if the fatal bullet came from one of the soldiers or his own revolver.