Unit 2 Ecology Study Guide
Be able to descibe the following words.
Terms in this set (42)
The acton of classifying somethings into categories according to shared characteristics.
A type of science that includes describing, naming, and classifying organisms.
A system that helps identify organisms using questions.
The living things inside of an environment.
The nonliving things inside of an environment.
A group of organisms (the same species) that live in a certain area.
All the populations that collaborate together and live in the same habitat.
A community of living and nonliving things.
Where life exists on Earth.
The energy pathway through different stages, depending on the animals eating habits.
A diagram that displays the alike ways organisms eat in an ecosystem.
The largest amount of organisms that can survive inside of an environment at any given time.
An organism murdered and consumed by another organism.
An organism that eats all or pieces of another organism
A relationship in which two organisms are included into each others lives.
A relationship that helps two organisms that rely greatly on one another.
A big region with a specific climate, and certain plant and animal communities.
A plant that loses its leaves in the winter to prevent itself from losing water.
An area that was once covered in water, or has a lot of moisture in its soil.
When one type of community takes the place of another in a certain spot or over time.
What are the different levels of organization in ecology?
The different levels of organization in ecology are organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.
How does energy flow through an environment? Be able to interpret the following types of diagrams.
When organisms consume another organism or a plant they gain energy. The energy is passed on to another organism that eats that organism.
What is a food chain? What does it show?
A food chain is the flow of energy and nutrients from one organism to the next. It shows interactions between single organisms. Producers are at the base of the food chain. Primary consumers eat producers. Secondary consumers eat primary consumers. Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers.
What is a food web? What does it show?
A food web is the flow of energy from one organism to others in the environment. A food web is different from a food chain because it shows all of the interactions between the organisms in the environment.
What is an energy pyramid? What does it show?
An energy pyramid shows the amount of energy stored in the tissues of the living organisms in a particular environment. As the consumer level increases up the pyramid, the amount of energy in the organisms decreases. Decomposers are at the top of the energy pyramid.
How do different organisms gain energy?
Organisms can gain energy by eating other organisms, eating plants, and making their own food.
What are producers? What process do they use to make their food?
A producer is a plant, and they make their own food. Producers use photosynthesis and chemosynthesis to make their food.
What are consumers? What are the four types of consumers and how are they classified?
A consumer is an organism that eats other organisms in order to get energy.
Hebivores - only eat plants.
Carnivores - only eat animal tissue (meat).
Omnivores - Eat both plant and animal tissue
Detrivores - Eat dead, decomposing plant and animal tissue (aka scavengers)
What are decomposers? What are their roles in the environment?
A decomposer obtains energy by breaking down dead organisms by recycling their organic material. Their roles are to recycle dead materials and get rid of waste.
How do organisms interact with one another in their community?
Organisms interact with each other in competition, predator and prey, and symbiosis.
What are the types of interactions between organisms?
The types of interactions between organisms include competition, predator and prey, and symbiosis.
What are the types of symbiosis between organisms? (include co-evolution)
The types of symbiosis between organisms are mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, and co-evolution.
What defensive mechanisms do organisms use to avoid predation?
Defensive mechanisms used to avoid predation include: camouflage, defensive mechanisms, warning coloration, and mimicry.
What is the water cycle?
The movement of water between the ocean, land atmosphere, and living things.
What is the carbon cycle?
The exchange of carbon between the environment and living things.
What is the nitrogen cycle?
The movement of nitrogen between the environment and living things.
What is Ecological succession?
The natural process the environment goes through to mature.
What is the maturation process of an environment? Include primary succession and secondary succession.
Primary succession happens when there is no life in the area. Secondary succession happens after a disturbance in the succession process. Cub - young wolf - adult wolf- small pack - big wolf pack.
What is taxonomy? Who invented it?
The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms. Carl von Linne. Carolus Linnaeus, he invented Binomial Nomenclature - 2 name naming system. Genus species. Genus is always capitalized, species is lowercase, both are underlined or italicized.
How are taxonomic groups organized?
Into groups based on similarities/relationships between organisms. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. King Phillip came over for grape soda.
What are the six kingdoms living organisms are grouped in?
Archaebacteria, eubacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
What is a dichotomous key? How is it used?
It aids in identifying unknown organisms using a series of questions. Uses quantitative and qualitative characteristics to identify the object/organism. Each step gives two choices, tells you to move to the next step based on physical characteristics.
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