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Relativity Review
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Gravity
Terms in this set (26)
Reference Frame
a coordinate system in which measurements of position and time can be made
Newtons Postulates concerning time and space
time and space are fixed and absolute. they are measured the same by all obbservers. the speed of light depends on the speed of the source(depends on reference frame
Inertial Reference Frame
a reference frame in which newtons law of inertia applies. A reference frame which is at rest or at constant velocity(not acceleration)
Two Postulates of Special Relativitity
1. The laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames
2. the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers(is invariant)
Simultaneity
1. two events occurring at the same point in space and which are simultaneous for one observer are simultaneous for all observers
2. two events occurring at different points in space and which are simultaneous for one observer are not simultaneous for another observer in a different frame of reference
Effects of Special Relativity
1. time dilation: moving clocks run more slowly than stationary clocks
2. length contraction: moving objects appear to shrink in the direction of motion
Proper time interval( Δto)
the time between events as measured in a frame where the events occur at the same point in space
(the proper time is the greatest possible length for the object)
Proper Length(Lo)
the length of an object recorded in a frame of reference where the object is at rest
(proper length is the greatest possible length for the object)
Invariant quantity
a quantity that is the same in all frames of reference
6 Invariant quantities
1. speed of light in a vacuum(c)
2. electric charge
3. proper time( Δto)
4. Proper length(Lo)
5. Rest mass(mo)
6. spacetime interval: (ct)^2 - (x)^2
Rest mass(mo)
the mass of an object as measured in a frame of reference where it is at rest
Energy of a photon
E=pc
Pion Decay Experiments
E1+E2=total energy
E1-E2= total momentum
**Einstein's Principle of Equivalence
1. no experiment can be done to determine whether an observer is in an accelerating reference frame or a gravitational field
2. A reference frame accelerating in outer space is equivalent to a reference frame at rest in a gravitational field
Consequences of the Equivalence Principle
1. Bending of Light Rays
2. Time Dilation
Evidence of Bending of light rays
1. eddington's solar eclipse measurments of 1919
2. gravitational lensing
3. einstein cross/ring
Bending of Light Rays
A light beam shot through an elevator at rest in a gravitational field would appear to curve downward.
Light from a distant star is bent around the sun. when viewed from the earth, it appears to be to the side of its actual position
Time Dilation
gravity slows time
Note: clocks near the surface of the Earth run more slowly than clocks at higher altitudes
Gravitational Time Dilation(Gravitational Red-Shift)(Tower Experiment)(Pound-Rebka-Snider)
the increase in wavelength(or decfrease in frequency) of light when it moves from a stronger to a weaker gravitational field
Black Holes
a region of such extreme curvature in spacetime that not even light can escape it(the escape speed is greater than c)
event horizon(surface of a black hole)
the surface of a sphere whose radius is the schwarzschild radius
schwarzschild radius
the distance from the singularity to the event horizon of a black hole
gravitational time dilation(red shift) near a black hole
as one gets close to a black hole time slows down as measured by an outside observer
Applications of general relativity to the universe as a whole
1. Closed(sphereical) universe: (density> critical density) universe stops expanding and collapses back
2. Flat universe: (density= critical density) universe slowly stops expanding
3. Open(hyperbolic) universe: (density < critical density) universe never stops expanding
Other applications of general relativity
1. the existence of dark energy
2. super massive black holes
3. gravitational waves
Size of the universe Graph
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