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Patho Exam 3

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The impulses related to acute pain are usually transmitted by
myelinated A delta fiber
In which structure do pain impulses ascend the spinal cord?
the spinothalamic tract
According to the gate-control theory, passage of pain impulses may be naturally blocked
at the synapse by entry of other sensory impulses
What is the term used to describe the degree of pain that is endured before an individual takes action?
pain tolerance
What is the definition of endorphins?
opiate-like blocking agents in the central nervous system
Pain perceived in the left arm during the course of a heart attack is an example of
referred pain
What is a common analgesic administered to control a moderate level of pain?
codeine
Which of the following applies to spinal anesthesia?
The drug is injected into CSF or the epidural space of the spinal cord
Which of the following occurs frequently with acute pain but not with chronic pain?
stress response
Which of the following statements is characteristic of alcohol? It
may cause congenital defects in infants born to alcoholic mothers
What is a common indication of substance abuse?
behavioral change
When an increased dosage of a drug causes toxic effects, it is called
overdose
Synergism can cause an emergency situation when
a combination of alcohol and drugs has been taken
Which of the following apply to abuse of anabolic steroids? They
often cause permanent damage to the cardiovascular system
Which of the following are considered to be the toxic effects of a drug?
serious, possibly life-threatening effects
What is the official name assigned to a specific drug for worldwide use?
generic name
Which is the route of administration by which the largest proportion of the drug dose is likely lost before reaching the site of action?
oral
Ingesting a drug with a large meal would likely
delay the absorption of the drug into the blood
What is the reaction called when two drugs interact to produce a result much greater that the sum of individual effects?
synergism
At which site are most drugs metabolized and prepared for excretion?
liver
In traditional Asian medicine, acupoints are usually located
on designated meridians
Traditional drug or surgical therapy is incorporated with nontraditional methods by
osteopaths
What are the first priorities in the assessment of a patient in an emergency situation?
level of consciousness and respiratory function
Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
decreased hematocrit
Following hemolysis, which part of the hemoglobin molecule produces bilirubin?
heme
Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the
smaller amount of recycled iron available
Which of the following best describes the characteristics erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?
megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells
What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?
deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis
Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?
The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood
What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia?
excessive bleeding and recurrent infections
Which of the following applies to sickle-cell trait?
sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia
Which of the following is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?
pernicious anemia
In case of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated due to
increased blood volume
Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?
hematomas and hemarthroses are common
Which of the following substances is classified as an anticoagulant?
heparin
Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because
many circulating leukocytes are immature
Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include
exposure to radiation
What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?
chemotherapy
Thalassemia is caused by
a defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin
Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?
bleeding time