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84 terms

AP World Unit 3 Key Terms

Chapters 7, 8, 9
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Harun al-Rashid
Most famous of the Abbasid caliphs (786-809); renowned for sumptuous and costly living recounted in The Thousand and One Nights.
Buyids
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad and acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads.
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic invaders from central Asia; staunch Sunni; ruled from the 11th century in the name of the Abbasids.
Crusades
Invasions of western Christians into Muslim lands, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem in the First Crusade and established Christian kingdoms enduring until 1291.
Saladin
12th-century Muslim ruler; reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms. Famous in the Third Crusade along with Richard the Lionhearted of England
Ibn Khaldun
Great Muslim historian; author of The Muqaddimah; sought to
uncover persisting patterns in Muslim dynastic history.
Rubaiyat
Epic poem of Omar Khayyam; seeks to find meaning in life and a path to union with the divine.
al-Razi
Classified all matter as animal, vegetable, and mineral.
al-Biruni
11th-century scientist; calculated the specific weight of major minerals.
Ulama
Islamic religious scholars; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; opposed to non-Islamic thinking.
al-Ghazali
Brilliant Islamic theologian; attempted to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions.
Sufis
Islamic mystics; spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regions. (Missionaries)
Mongols
Central Asian nomadic peoples; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general who conquered Sind and made it part of the Umayyad Empire.
Arabic numerals
Indian numerical notation brought by the Arabs to the West.
Harsha
7th-century north Indian ruler; built a large state that declined after his death in 646.
Bhaktic cults
Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses—especially Shiva, Vishnu, and Kali.
Mira Bai
Low-caste woman poet and songwriter in bhaktic cults of Hinduism
Shrivijaya
Trading empire based on the Malacca Strait; its Buddhist government resisted Muslim missionaries; when it fell, southeastern Asia was opened to Islam.
Malacca
Flourishing trading city in Malaya; established a trading empire after the fall of Shrivijaya.
Demak
Most powerful of the trading states on the north Java coast; converted to Islam and served as a dissemination point to other regions.
Lateen sails
Large triangular sails that are attached to the masts by long booms or yard arms which extend diagonally high across both the fore and aft portions of the ship.
Sultan
Word meaning "victorious"; came to designate Muslim rulers.
Holy Land
The region of present-day Israel; includes the city of Jerusalem, which is a holy city to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Chinggis Khan
Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to the conquest of most of the Islamic world.
Hulegu
(1217 - 1265) Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257.
Mamluks
Turkic slave-warriors who ruled Egypt and defeated the Mongols to prevent their entry into northern Africa.
Rajas
Term used for Hindu kings.
Sultans of Delhi
Title of the Islamic imperial houses of India, which literally means princes of the heartland.
Stateless societies
Societies of varying sizes organized through kinship and lacking the concentration of power found in centralized states.
Maghrib
Arabic term for western north Africa.
Almoravids & Almohads
Puritanical Islamic reform movements among the Berbers of northwest Africa; built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain.
Ethiopia
A Christian kingdom in the highlands of eastern Africa.
Lalibela
13th-century Ethiopian ruler; built great rock churches
Sahel
The extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; an exchange region between the forests to the south and north Africa.
Sudanic states
States trading to north Africa and mixing Islamic and indigenous ways.
Mali
State of the Malinke people, centered between the Senegal and Niger rivers.
Mansa
Title of the ruler of Mali.
Mansa Kankan Musa
Made a pilgrimage to Mecca during the 14th century that became legendary because of the wealth distributed along the way.
Sundiata
Created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died in 1260. "The Lion Prince"
Timbuktu
Niger River port city of Mali; had a famous Muslim university.
Songhay
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of the Niger valley; capital at Gao.
Hausa states
States, such as Kano, among the Hausa of northern Nigeria; combined Islamic and indigenous beliefs.
Zenji
Arabic term for the people and coast of east Africa.
East African trading ports
Urbanized commercial centers mixing African and Arab cultures; included Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar.
Ibn Batuta
Muslim traveler who described African societies and cultures. A sort of Muslim "Marco Polo" (Mall in Dubai)
Demographic transition
The change from slow to rapid population growth; often associated with industrialization; occurred first in Europe and is more characteristic of the "developed world.".
Benin
Nigerian city-state formed by the Edo people during the 14th century; famous for its bronze art work.
Kongo Kingdom
Large agricultural state on the lower Congo River; capital at Mbanza Kongo.
Zimbabwe
Central African royal stone courts.
Great Zimbabwe
With massive stone buildings and walls, incorporates the greatest earlybuildings in sub-Saharan Africa.
Islamization
The spread of the Islamic faith across the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa.
Bantu migration
(100 C.E. - 900 C.E.) Group of people and associated language which originated in Nigeria; migrated south over much of the African continent and made up a majority of the African language groups.
Ifriqiya
Term used by the Romans for Africa.
Jihad
An Islamic term used for holy war waged to purify, spread, or protect the faith.
Axum
(1st-6th centuries C.E.) Developing in the Ethiopian highlands and traded with India and the Mediterranean areas to gain Greek and Arabian cultural influences; conversion of the king to Christianity in 350 C.E. laid the basis for Ethiopian Christian culture.
Ghana
Territory in east African north of the Senegal and Niger rivers; inhabited by the Soninke people in the 5th century C.E.; Sonike called their ruler "Ghana," thus was created the name of the kingdom.
Matrilineal
Designating of kinship through the mother.
Sharia
Codified Islamic law which is ethically based on the Qur'an and the Hadith.
Justinian
6th-century Byzantine emperor; failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire; rebuilt Constantinople; codified Roman law.
Hagia Sophia
Great domed church constructed during the reign of Justinian.
Body of Civil Law
Justinian's codification of Roman law; made Roman law a coherent basis for political and economic life.
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom in the Balkans; put constant pressure on the Byzantine Empire; defeated by Basil II in 1014.
Icons
Images of religious figures venerated by Byzantine Christians.
Iconoclasm
The breaking of images; a religious controversy of the 8th century; Byzantine emperor attempted, but failed, to suppress icon veneration.
Battle of Manzikert
Seljuk Turk victory in 1071 over Byzantium; resulted in loss of the empire's rich Anatolian territory.
Cyril and Methodius
Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and the Balkans; responsible for creating the Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
Kiev
Commercial city in Ukraine established by Scandinavians in 9th century; became the center for a kingdom that flourished until the 12th century.
Vladimir I
Ruler of Kiev (980-1015); converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity.
Russian Orthodoxy
Russian form of Christianity brought from the Byzantine Empire.
Boyars
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts.
Tatars
Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th century; left Russian church and aristocracy intact.
Byzantine Empire
(500 C.E. - 1453 C.E.) The eastern portion of the Roman Empire which survived beyond the collapse of the Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam.
Constantinople
Capital of the Byzantine Empire; constructed on the site of Byzantium, an old Greek city on the Bosporus. (today's Istanbul)
Orthodox Christian Church
Eastern church which was created in 1053 after the schism from the western Roman church; its head is the patriarch of Constantinople. (also called the Byzantine Church)
Constantine
(312 - 337) Strong emperor toward the end of the Roman Empire who tried with some success to reverse the tide of its ultimate fall. Constantine moved the capital away from Rome to Constantinople and allowed freedom of worship for Christians with the Edict of Milan.
Huns
Group of nomadic tribes that pushed through central Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries C.E., instigating the migration of the Germanic tribes into the Roman Empire.
Sassanian Empire
(227 - 651) Persian Empire which continued Persian traditions but instituted the Zoroastrian religion as the state religion.
Procopius
Historian of the Byzantine Empire who in his Secret History revealed the cruelty of the autocratic system in which the emperor ruled by divine providence.
Hellenistic culture
After Alexander's death, Greek art, education, and culture merged with those in the Middle East. Trade and important scientific centers were established, such as Alexandria, Egypt.
Greek fire
incendiary material used by the Byzantines described as able to burn in water.
Tsar
Term used for the emperors of the Russia; literally means Caesar. (also commonly spelled "czar")
Cyrillic alphabet
Alphabet named after Saint Cyril who used it to help convert the Slavs to Orthodox Christianity.
Rurik
Legendary Scandinavian regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.