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daily research

where do psychologists get their research questions?


educated guess


study must be repeated


gathered information by asking people directly

target population

the whole group you want to study or describe


only part of the target population

random sample

individuals are selected by chance from the target population

stratified sample

subgroups in the population are represented proportionally in the sample

volunteer bias

people who volunteer to participate in studies

intelligence tests or personality tests

the testing method: what are some examples of tests?

case study

an in-depth investigation of an individual or a small group

sigmund freud

what psychologist used case studies?

Cannot be replicated

Major fault of case studies.

longitudinal studies

observation over a long period of time

cross sectional method

researchers select a sample that includes people of different the participants in different age groups

naturalistic observation method

field study, they observe other people or animals in their natural habitats

laboratory observation method

observe behavior in a lab


measure of how closely one thing is related to other

positive correlation

a correlation between the need for achievement and salaries

negative correlation

as one goes up, the other must come down


how do psychologists study data?

independent variable

factor that researchers manipulate

dependent variable

depends on something

experimental group

members of it receive treatment

control group

do not receive treatment

controlled experiment

an experiment uses control groups as well as experimental groups


has no effect

single blind studies

participants do not know whether they are in the experimental group or the control group

double blind studies

a study in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of who receives the treatment

they set the ethical standards

what does the APA do?

keep peoples thoughts and feelings private because then the people would be more honest

confidentiality - why?

informed consent

that people agree

deception - when can it be used?

it cannot be run without deceiving people and it would be used if a kids was being beat up by their parents

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