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Biology 1 Test 2 SHU Bio 160

Seton Hill University vocab for Dr. Rogers Biology Test 2
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alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.
Antheridium
In plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
apical meristems
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and the buds of shoots. The dividing cells of an (blank blank) enable the plant to grow in length.
Archegonium
In plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
Bryophyte
An informal name for a moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
Cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation that prevents desiccation in terrestrial plants
Gametangium
Multicellular plant structure in which gametes are formed. Female (blank) are called archegonia, and male (blank) are called antheridia.
Gametophyte
In organisms (plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis. The haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophytes.
Heterosporous
Referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores. which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes.
Homosporous
Referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gamctophyte.
Hornwort
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Anthocerophyta.
Leaf
The main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants.
Lignin
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that provides structural support in terrestrial species.
Liverwort
A small, herbacrous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Hepatophyta.
Lycophyte
An informal name for a member of the phylum Lycophyta, which includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.
Megaspore
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.
Microspore
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.
Moss
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Bryophyta.
Peat
Extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material formed primarily from the wetland moss Sphagnum.
Phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
Pterophyte
An informal name for a member of the phylum pterophyta, which includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives.
Root
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil
seedless vascular
An informal name for a plant that has vascular tissue but lacks seeds. (blank blank) plants form a paraphyletic group that includes the phyla lycophyta (club mosses and their relatives) and Pterophyta (ferns and their relatives).
sorus
A cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll. (blank) may be arranged in various patterns, such as parallel lines or dots, which are useful in fern identification.
sporangium
A multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop.
spore
In the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis. A (blank) can divide by mitosis to develop into a multicellular haploid individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell.
sporophyte
In organisms (plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes. The (blank) produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytes.
strobili
The technical term for a cluster of sporophylls known commonly as a cone, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
tracheid
A long, tapered water-conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants. Functioning (blank)s are no longer living.
vascular plant
A plant with vascular tissue. (blank blank)s include all living plant species except mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant.
Anther
In an angiosperm, the terminal pollen sac of a stamen. where pollen grains containing sperm-producing male gametophytes form.
Carpel
The ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
Coevolution
The evolution of organisms of two or more species in which each adapts to changes in the other
Conifer
Member of the largest gymnosperm phylum. Most (blank)s arc cone-bearing trees, such as pines and firs.
Cotyledon
A seed leaf of an angiosperm embryo. Some species have one (blank), others two.
cross-pollination
In angiosperms, the transfer of pollen from an anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species.
embryo sac
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure that typically has eight haploid nuclei.
Endosperm
In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. The (blank) provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
Filament
In an angiosperm, the stalk portion of the stamcn. the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
Flower
In an angiosperm, a short stem with up to four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction,
Fruit
A mature ovary of a flower. The (blank) protects dormant seeds and often aids in their dispersal.
Integument
layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant.
Ovary
In flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop.
Ovule
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
Petal
A modified leaf of a flowering plant. (blank)s arc the often-colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.
polar nuclei
In angiosperms, the two nuclei of the central cell of the female gametophyte; they fuse with a sperm nucleus to form the triploid (3n) endosperm nucleus.
pollen grains
In seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall.
Pollination
The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules, a process required for fertilization.
Receptacle
The base of a flower; the part of the stem that is the site of attachment of the floral organs.
Seed
An adaptation of some terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat.
sepal
A modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower bud before it opens.
Stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
Stigma
The sticky part of a flower's carpel, which traps pollen grains.
style
The stalk of a flower's carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top.
triple fusion
During fertilization in plants, one male gamete fuses with the egg cell and forms the zygote (this process is called syngamy). The other male gamete fuses with the secondary nucleus (this is called triple fusion). The syngamy and triple fusion together are called double fertilization.