Upgrade to remove ads
Adaptation in the wild: ecological traits
Terms in this set (19)
Adaptive landscape concept
In any environment there are ________ of fitness associated with good combination of phenotypic traits.
Typically selection will favour phenotypes that enable individuals to ?
Adaptive landscape can change in _______ and _______. What is useful in one particular time or location might not be useful in others
there is a continuous shape _______
climb to the top of adaptive peaks
time and space
time and space
Once and individual climbs to a peak in the adaptive landscape, it is very difficult for selection to do what?
what must happen instead?
to favour going down into a valley
a dramatic event enabling a leap to another peak - associated with key innovation.
Evolution is directly dependent on the ___________
Therefore should only be able to predict evolution as well as you can predict ____________ ___________
Who showed that oscillating selection can take place in sexually selected traits? (In the lark bunting)
Chain and Lyon, 2008
What did Chain and Lyon, 2008 do?
what were the results and conclusions
measured selection in lark bunting
In some years female selected males using beak size, other years they selected ales using body size or the basis of their colour patterns
Suggest that feels decide which traits to favour in any year on the basis of the environment
Based on Chain and Lyon, 2008 it seems that variation in sexually selected traits might be maintained by __________ mating patterns deepening on ________ ________
What two species could you show provide for evidence of selection?
Bighorn sheep - decrease in mean horn length and mean weight of rams
Fisheries - initial loss of larger individuals and mean population size goes down
Who used guppies to show predator mediate selection?
Reznick et al., 1996
In Reznick et al, 1996 - what did guppies from high predation environments show?
more smaller young produced faster
reproduction at small size and smaller embryos
What did Reznick et al, 1996 do experimentally?
what did they find?
Introduced guppies to a river which they were not found in previously
high predation guppies introduced into high and low predation sites - went back after 8 years
low predation environment populations had evolved larger fewer young
bets survivors were those from the site where they came from or a similar site = local adaptation
Who investigated influence of predation on ecological adaption with Timema spp.
Nosily & Crespi, 2006
What did Calsbeek and Cox, 2010 do?
excluded predators from small forested islands
Who used Anolis lizards in Caribbean islands to study competition-driven selection in nature.
Calsbeek and Cox, 2013
In Calsbeek and Cox, 2013, when birds and snaked were excluded from islands what was found?
When just birds where excluded what was found?
with birds and snakes?
if snakes were present what was found
On capturing the remaining lizard what did they find?
what did they conclude?
survivorship was high with no predators
survivorship was high
perching height was higher
no differences in selection on morphological traits between predator treatments
but very substantial differences between densities
concluded that competition is a strong driver of natural selection in the wild
What did Martin and Wainwright, 2013 do?
what did they find?
what did this show?
hybridised different ectomorphs of pupfishes in the lab
strong selection against intermediates of the ectomorphs
that intermediate phenotypes were of lower fitness
What is the red queen hypothesis
the idea that organisms must constantly adapt and evolve not simply to gain reproductive advantage but to also to survive against the constantly evolving parasites and predators that plague them
What is the Suicide King hypothesis?
The idea that extreme local adaptation of parasites to their hosts leads the them to be so maladapted to other populations that they are driving themselves to suicide
Though reciprocal infection trials what did Lively, 1989 show?
- using New Zealand lakes and their trematode parasites
what is this consistent with?
That snails were most vulnerable to their local trematode parasites
What might local adaptation be diminished by?
In a study by Lively and Dybdahl, 2000 what was shown?
what hypothesis did this support?
gene flow from other populations
that hybrid trematodes do not possess the correct combination to reliably infect either host population -
This set is often in folders with...
Adaptation in the wild: sensory ecology
Ecology and Speciation
Functional genes and adaptive evolution
You might also like...
BIO EXAM 2 - ASU Fall 2016
Genetics exam 3: Lecture 24
genetics ch 5
Other sets by this creator
Senescence, Menopause, Semelparity
Sex Ratios II
Other Quizlet sets
Anthropology Test 1
Unit 5: Interest Rates, Term Structure and the fed
Religion - 1st Century