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Science semester test study guide
Terms in this set (42)
have the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies of all EM waves. Radio waves are used to communicate over long distances such as space. Some of the uses of radio waves include radios, shortwave radios (walkie talkies, CB radios, police radios, etc.) radio telescopes, and television broadcasting.
have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than radio waves. Like radio waves, microwaves are used to send information over long distances. Some devices that use microwave energy include microwave ovens, cell phones, all wi-fi devices and radar. Radar is used to monitor airplane and ship navigation.
have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than microwaves do. Some of the uses of infrared waves include astronomy, cooking, heating, night vision, tracking, and climatology. You sense infrared radiation as heat. This is the only EM wave that humans produce. Cold blooded animals use infrared senses to hunt prey.
is the very narrow range of wavelengths and frequencies of the EMS that humans can see. Some of the energy from the sun is visible light. White light is visible light of all wavelengths combined. Humans see different wavelengths as different colors. The longest wavelengths are red and the shortest are violet. The range of colors is called the visible spectrum.
Use ROY G BIV to remember red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
EM wave that has shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than visible light does. Ultraviolet or UV light has good and bad effects on the body. Bees can see UV light even though humans cannot.
kills bacteria on food
disinfects surgical tools
Helps skin to produce vitamin D
can pass through many materials. X-rays are useful as they allow us to visualize structures inside the body. Too much exposure is harmful as x-rays cause cellular mutation and can kill living cells. X-rays are also produced by stars and black holes. They are also used for security purposes in airports and federal offices.
They have the highest frequency and shortest wavelengths They penetrate most materials very easily. Gamma rays are used to treat some forms of cancer. Gamma rays are also used to kill bacteria in foods such as meat and fruit. They are also produced by nuclear reactors which we use to produce electrical power.
The rate of change of an object's position. Speed can be calculated by dividing distance by time. Formula: Speed = distance time
formula: Average speed = total distance total time
The rate of change of displacement. Velocity includes both speed and direction.
measures the change of position of an object and includes direction. Only the starting and ending points are used to find displacement.
The rate of change of velocity. Speeding up, slowing down, and turning are all forms of acceleration.
A place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.
International System of Units (SI)
A system of measurement based on multiples of ten and on established measures of mass, length, and time. The SI unit of of length is the meter (m).
is a push or a pull. Force is described by its strength and the direction in which it acts.
A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second.
is the combination of all forces acting on an object. The net force determines whether an object moves and also in which direction it moves.
Friction is the force that opposes motion between any surfaces that are in contact. There are four types of friction: static, sliding, rolling, and fluid friction. Static, sliding, and rolling friction occur between solid surfaces. Fluid friction occurs in liquids and gases.
The force that pulls all objects toward each other. Two factors affect the gravitational attraction between objects: mass and distance.
Newton's first law of motion
states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at a constant velocity, unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force.
is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
Newton's second law of motion
states that acceleration depends on the object's mass and on the net force acting on the object.
Newton's third law of motion
states that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object OR for every action there is an equal, but opposite reaction.
Force exerted on an object that causes it to move.
The ability to do work or cause a change. Energy is measured in joules.
is the rate of doing work or the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
Power = Energy transferred divided by Time
How are these concepts related
Work is the transfer of energy. Power is the rate at which energy is transferred in a unit of time.
Two types of energy
Kinetic and potential
is the energy of motion, observable as the movement of an object, particle, or set of particles. Any object in motion is using kinetic energy: a person walking, a thrown baseball, a crumb falling from a table, and a charged particle in an electric field are all examples of kinetic energy.
is stored energy resulting from the position or shape of an object.
Gravitational potential energy
is potential energy related to an object's height.
Elastic Potential Energy
is the energy of stretched or compressed objects.
is the form of energy associated with the position and motion of an object. An object's mechanical energy is a combination of its potential energy and kinetic energy. You can find an object's mechanical energy by adding the object's kinetic and potential energy.
Mechanical Energy = Potential energy + Kinetic energy
All objects are made up of atoms. Because atoms are in constant motion, they have kinetic energy. The faster the particles move, the more kinetic energy they have. These particles are arranged in specific ways in different objects, therefore they also have potential energy. The total potential and kinetic energy in an object is called thermal energy.
is the energy of electrical charges. Depending on whether the charges are moving or stored, electrical energy can be a form of kinetic or potential energy. Static electricity (an example would be jumping on a trampoline in socks and building up a charge) would be potential energy while electric discharge (the shock you receive when you touch metal after jumping on the trampoline) or an electric current would be kinetic energy.
Chemical compounds are made up of atoms and molecules. Bonds between the atoms hold chemical compounds together. These bonds have chemical energy. This energy is potential energy stored in the chemical bonds that hold the chemicals together. Chemical energy is stored in food, matches, batteries, and fuel.
Nuclear energy is stored in the nucleus of an atom. One type of nuclear energy is released during a nuclear reaction, known as nuclear fission, occurs when a nucleus splits. Nuclear power plants use fission reactions to produce electricity. Nuclear fusion occurs when the nuclei of atoms fuse or join together. This releases tremendous amounts of energy and only occurs in the core of stars.
Electromagnetic energy travels in the forms of waves that consists of electric and magnetic fields that vibrate at right angles to each other. There are seven types of electromagnetic energy: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays.
Magnetic energy is the force of attraction or repulsion (pulling or pushing) generated by spinning electric charges in the magnets.
Most forms of energy can be transformed into other forms. A change from one form to another is called an energy transformation. Some energy changes involve single transformations while others involve many transformations.
mean that one form of energy needs to be transformed to another to get work done. An example is how a toaster transforms electrical energy into thermal energy to cook bread.
mean that a series of energy transformations is needed to do work. An example is how mechanical energy strikes a match which transforms into thermal energy. The thermal energy causes the stored chemical energy at the tip of the match to transform into thermal and electromagnetic energy of heat and light.
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