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Adaptation in the wild: sensory ecology
Terms in this set (25)
Define sensory ecology
how information about the environment is obtained by organisms (mechanisms), and how it is useful (function)
light sensitive molecules found in the photoreceptors (in the retinas)
complex evolution and gene ___________ resulted in opsins varying between lineages
mammals are trichromatic, having 3 _____ and 1 ____
red green blue and light dark
Lake Baikal Russia has many _____ species, and is best known for _________ radiations of snails, amphipods and _________ fish
What is special (physically) about Lake Baikal?
It is very deep and very old ca. 25 Ma
It has clear, deep cold water
There are 33 species of sculpins (cottoid fish) in Lake Baikal.
These range from __________ to __________ water species
the _______ water species are colourful
the _______ water species are quite dull
shallow to deep water
why are the deep water sculpins of Lake Baikal not colourful?
There is no light deep in the lake so producing any body coloration would be a wasteful
The sculpin of Lake Baikal are __________
Which wavelength persists the longest in water?
In murky water (not deep), there is a a raid attenuation of ______ and ______ leaving ________, ______ is also lost quickly.
UV and blue
If a deep-water fish was to tune its opsins environment:
In a clear water environment, they would shift from _______ to ________
In a murky condition, would have a _______ opsin preference
green to blue
How could you measure the opsin light sensitivity in the eyes of the sculpin fishes of Lake Baikal?
what did this show?
take the pigments from their eyes and measure light absorption directly with micro-spectrometry
the opsin sensitivities have shifted towards the expected directions as species have adapted to different depths of water
On micro-spectrophotometry of the sculpins in Lake Baikal. The opsins showed a shift from the green sensitive area towards blue sensitive area as species habitats?
increase in depth
consistent with evolutionary predictions
Who looked to see if there was a genetic basis to the divergence of opsin sensitivity?
Bowmaker & Hunt, 2006
In Bowmaker & Hunt, 2006
Which genes traits were mapped onto a phylogeny?
this showed that there have been a few shifts associated with _____ amino acid change resulting in shift to a ________ wavelength
the same occurs when shifting towards a deeper wavelength environment
these changes resulted in?
single amino acid changes occurred
What related the African cichlids and Lake Baikal sculpins?
What is this an example of ?
these are two ______ teleost radiations
They have the exact same amino acid changes associated with different opsin sensitivities.
convergent evolution at the genie level of visual systems
What can be seen in the prestin gene tree?
between toothed whales and echolocating bats
(closer together than the echo locating bats are to non-echo locating bats, on the prestin gene tree)
What is prestin?
the protein of the outer hair cells of the inner ear of the mammalian cochlea
How could you isolate the genes expressed in a system?
RNA sequencing or microarray-technology
At the genetic level, what examples of convergent evolution are there?
Who proposed the sensory drive hypothesis?
What does the sensory drive hypothesis state
that local ecology drives optimisation of communication pathways (between signaller and receptor) to maximise conspicuousness against background noise
How might you expect two separate populations of the same species in different environments to diverge based on them being in different ecologies
In their mate choice signals
In Boughman et al, 2001 what was evidence provided for?
With what species?
Sensory drive and it being driven by ecology
Sticklebacks from Vancouver lakes
This set is often in folders with...
Adaptation in the wild: ecological traits
Ecology and Speciation
Functional genes and adaptive evolution
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