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Math
Statistics
Elementary Statistics Vocab
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Gravity
Terms in this set (40)
Data
collections of observations
Statistics
everything to do with collecting data and what you do with it
Population
The complete set of data that is being considered
Goes with parameter
Census
Collection of data from every member of the population
Sample
Sub collection of data from a population (ex: poll)
Goes with statistic
Parameter
numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population
Statistic
numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
Quantitative Data
represents counts or measurements with numbers
Qualitative Data
Label that does not represent counts or measurements even if it is represented via numbers
Discrete
quantitative data whose values come from a counted set of separate values
Continuous
Quantitative data that can take any value over some interval
Nominal level of measurement
qualitative
puts a name on it
can't be ordered in a meaningful way
Ordinal level of measurement
can be ordered in a meaningful way but differences can't be found or are meaningless
(EX: ranking)
Interval level of measurement
Admits a meaningful order and differences but does not have a natural zero value (EX: room temp. and years)
Ratio level of measurement
has all qualities: order, differences, and natural zero value
Simple Random Sample
a sample for which every other possible sample has the same chance of being chosen (aka n subjects)
Systematic
every kth element in the population is selected
Convenience
easiest data to obtain is selected
Stratified
population is subdivided by some characteristic and samples are drawn from each subgroup
Clustering
Population is divided into sections and entire sections are randomly chosen as samples
Observational study
data collected by observing without modifying the subjects
Experiment
treatment is applied to subjects and effects are observed
Cross-sectional
data is collected at one point in time
Retrospective
data is collected from a past time span
Prospective
data is collected from groups over time
Confounding
failure to distinguish effects of various factors; misinterpretation
Sampling Error
random sample is not reflective of overall population
Nonrandom sampling error
when sample is not randomly selected
Non sampling error
human error in the collection or analysis of data
frequency distribution
table or graph showing how data are partitioned into classes by listing class descriptions along with the number of data values in each class
(can be quantitative/qualitative, discrete/continuous, and at any level of measurement)
Lower and Upper limits
the smallest and largest numbers that can belong to the different classes
Class boundaries
numbers used to separate the classes (midpoints of the gaps between an upper class limit and and the following lower class limit) plus the lower boundary and upper boundary
*Average the previous class UL with the next class LL
Class midpoints
midpoints between the lower and upper limits
*Average the UL and LL of the same class
Class width
difference between 2 consecutive lower class limits (LL-LL) and (UL-UL)
Relative Frequency Distribution
each class frequency is replaced by a proportion or percent
*Proportions must be between 0 and 1
*Percent must be between 0% and 100%
(has same shape as original frequency distribution
Cumulative Frequency Distribution
each frequency is replaced by the sum of the frequencies for that class and all previous classes (has different shape from original frequency distribution)
Normal shape
bell curve
Uniform shape
constant across top
left skewed
like normal but longer on left
right skewed
like normal but longer on right
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