Terms in this set (50)
Amusing, delightful, ingenious, and perceptive language to make a pointed statement.
A reference to something commonly known—historical, literary, religious, pop culture.
A work that targets human vices, social institutions, and conventions for reform or ridicule.
A verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person's distinctive physical features or characteristics.
The ironic minimalizing of fact, presenting something as less significant than it is.
Appealing to a person's sense of belonging to the group
Begging the question
Assuming that one thing makes something else true
Preconceived ideas or prejudices, which are often used in an argument instead of factual evidence
A sequence of events in which one event causes the next, which in turn causes the next, and so on
The argument moves in a circle
Drawing a conclusion that does not follow logically from the premise
Post hoc fallacy
Creating a questionable cause-and-effect relationship between events
Biased or misleading information that is spread about a particular viewpoint, person, or cause
Words/phrases used to limit the claim
Exceptions to the claim. Counterarguments that identify situations where the claim does not hold true.
Red herring fallacy
Attempts to confuse readers by "throwing them off"
To disprove or call into question with evidence
An unfair tactic used to make an argument appear stronger by presenting only supporting evidence and ignoring challenges to the evidence
This is the domino effect. One event will lead to a chain of events that will cause a catastrophe
Straw man fallacy
An intentional oversimplification of an opposing argument to make it easier to refute
The inference or assumption, either stated or implied, that connects a claim to its grounds.
An attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject.
This is the domino effect. One event will lead to a chain of events that will cause a catastrophe.
Foot in the door fallacy
A tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request.
An attempt to sway the listener with information that, though persuasive, is irrelevant or doesn't really support the matter at hand.
One key term has one meaning in one part of an argument and another meaning in another part.
A combination of summary, paraphrase, quotation, and a writer's own ideas that supports an original conclusion; put parts together to form a whole. Combines information together in a different way by putting elements together in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.
Incidents that occurred in the past but may have had a greater impact than more recent events.
a figure of speech in which the writer communicates to the audience by speaking as an absent or imaginary person or object; a form of personification.
A set of ideas or standards that guides someone to an ethically correct conclusion--what is good or bad, right or wrong.
The evidence that is used to support the claim
Identifying opposing arguments and presenting arguments against them
Trustworthiness. A well-informed, reasonable, and fair source is believable
Appeal to doubtful authority
The use of non-experts to support an argument
Exaggeration, often with sequential enhancement
A periodical that is usually written by experts (not journalists), documented, and peer reviewed
Establishing possible points of agreement with others
A series of three parallel words, phrases, clauses, or statements
A choice between two or more unfavorable alternatives
Qualifies a statement by recalling it and expressing it in a better, milder, or stronger way. Often uses a negative to recall
The main point of an argument; the thesis
A model for deductive reasoning that includes a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
A form of reasoning that moves from general statements (or premises) to specific conclusions
A form of reasoning that begins with specific observations (or evidence) and moves to a general conclusion
In the Toulmin argument, the evidence that supports the warrant
An unfair tactic of argument in which the writer misrepresents evidence
Either/or Fallacy (False Dilemma)
Simplifying complex issues with an either/or choice
A mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument; might be intentional deception
Arriving at a conclusion with too little evidence.
A phrase that identifies the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary; it shows the reader that you are beginning to share someone else's ideas.