a duty on trade, the purpose of which is primarily to regulate the flow of commerce rather than raise revenue.
A duty of trade (known as external taxation) or duty on items circulating within a nation or a colony (known as internal taxation), intended primarily to raise revenue rather than to regulate the flow of commerce
A diverse group of political thinkers and writers in Great Britain who elaborated the tradition of classical republicanism from the late seventeenth century through the eighteenth century
the view emphasizing that all rulers need to be watched due to a tendency for power to corrupt human nature
the view that representation is not linked to election but rather to common interest
the view that the people can be represented only by a person whom they have actually elected to office
committees of correspondence
the strategy devised by Samuel Adams in 1772 to rally popular support among American colonials against British imperial policies
Veteran politician who directed the British war effort in the latter part of the Seven Years War; a later advocate for colonial rights
Ottawa chief who organized an Indian rebellion, leading attacks against British forts ans settlements
A local defense band of civilians that included men between the ages of 16 and 65, whose only military training consisted of occasional gatherings known as musters
Armed clashes among political rivals, typically involving guerrilla fighting and the violent intimidation of civilians by militias
British military leader and subordinate to Clinton; in charge of the war efforts in the South; he surrendered to rebel forces at Yorktown
British general charged in part with overseeing the war effort; captured Philadelphia in 1777
Rebel army commander in charge of the Continental forces that triumphed over Burgoyne, taking his entire army
Rebel military commander given control of the war in the South; divided his army in order to divide and weaken the British army
states during the Confederation period that possessed grants whose western boundaries were not fixed
states during the Confederation period that had firmly drawn boundaries on all sides
The redefined women's role promoted by many American reformers in the 1780s and 1790s who believed that the success of republican government depended on educated and independent-minded mothers
separation of powers
The principle that each branch of government--- the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary--- should wield distinct powers independent from interference or infringement by other branches of government
A governing principle established by the Constitution in which the national government and the states divide power
checks and balances
The mechanism by which each branch of government--- keeps the others within bounds of their constitutional authority
Books and other print media offering tales designed to inspire young women to preserve their sexual purity
An internal tax placed on the production or dale of a commodity, usually a luxury or nonessential item
An economy in which individuals and families produce most of what they need to live
An economy in which individuals are involved in a network of markets and commercial transaction
Networks of trade based on the mutual exchange of goods and services with little or no use of coin currency
The doctrine set out by Chief Justice John Marshall in the Marbury v. Madison; the judicial branch of the federal government possesses the power to determine whether the laws of Congress or the actions of the executive branch violate the Constitution
A government act prohibiting trade with a foreign country or countries, usually to exert economic pressure
Alexander Hamilton's policy of having the federal government take responsibility for the war debts of the states
A business that has been granted a charter granting it legal rights, privileges, and liabilities distinct from the individual members that are a part of it
A person who has served an apprenticeship in a trade or craft, and who is qualified worker employed by another person
An attitude or policy of trading individuals or groups in a fatherly manner by providing for their needs without granting them rights of responsibilities
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835; presided over a number of important decisions on federal power and economic policy
The Seven Years' War pitted Britain against France in a struggle to control what region of North America?
Whose defeat at the makeshift defensive structure known as Fort Necessity began the Seven Years' War?
Whose defeat at Québec effectively ended the Seven Years' War on the continent of North America?
the marquis de Montcalm
William Pitt was
both the organizer of British victory in the Seven Years' War, and relatively sympathetic to American protests during the years after the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Britain title to all French claims
east of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida.
At the end of the Seven Years' War, the Americans ________, while the British ________.
celebrated their contributions to victory; voiced contempt for American soldiering and suspicions of American self-interest
Regarding the consequences of the Seven Years' War that led to the rift between the colonies and England, which of the following is NOT correctly stated?
The French and Indian threats were removed, so the British government felt they had no need to keep troops in the colonies.
After the Seven Years' War, Britain kept several thousand troops in the colonies for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
to enforce the Proclamation of 1763 by providing protection to colonials settling west of the Appalachians.
Who organized a combined uprising of the western tribes in the aftermath of the French defeat?
Which of the following was NOT among British "new measures" after the end of the Seven Years' War?
a new, higher tax—more effectively enforced—on imports of British goods like glass and tea
Americans insisted that they be taxed by their own assemblies because they held to John Locke's dictum,
that property guarantees liberty.
The writers of the English "Opposition" or "Country Party" believed all of the following EXCEPT that
Parliament must be controlled by the monarchs and their ministers, because politicians could not be trusted.
The Sons of Liberty, emerging in the Stamp Act protest, drew their members from the ranks of
traders, lawyers, and prosperous artisans.
In resisting the Stamp Act, Americans affirmed all of the following EXCEPT their
belief in virtual representation.
Which of the following British leaders actually supported the colonists' objections to taxation by Parliament?
The sloop Liberty, whose seizure prompted several thousand angry Bostonians to rough up customs officials and a night of violent rioting, was owned by which wealthy Boston merchant?
After 1768, the presence of freedom fighters in many European countries had which of the following effects upon resistance groups in America?
Resistance groups increasingly thought of themselves as part of a transatlantic network of the friends of liberty.
What was new in American resistance to the Townshend duties?
institutionalized mechanisms for enforcing non-importation
Parliament repealed all of the Townshend duties except the tax on tea because
it was a source of revenue and symbol of Parliament's authority.
The ________ Act allowed the housing of British troops in uninhabited private homes, outlying buildings, and barns.
When they learned of the Coercive Acts of 1774, many Americans concluded that a plot to enslave the colonies was being implemented by
the king's ministers and Parliament, but not George III.
History, colonials believed, proved liberty could be lost to the designs of corrupt politicians through a succession of usurpations including all of the following EXCEPT
denying the opportunity for ordinary folk to strive for the luxuries and comforts enjoyed by the better sort.
The First Continental Congress, in late 1774,
denied Parliament's right to tax and legislate for the colonies (while acknowledging its authority to regulate their trade), and set up a trade boycott.
Which of the following is NOT an example of how the colonies were beginning to seize authority a year before the Declaration of Independence, during early 1775?
Many colonial leaders increasingly issued explicit calls for full independence.
Which of the following was NOT argued by Thomas Paine in Common Sense?
Parliament had deliberately and wickedly brought about all of America's misfortunes.
What did Thomas Paine call the new era of politics that was dawning with the American fight for liberty?
the age of republicanism
The chapter introduction tells the story of the Battle of Bunker Hill to make the point that
a key question in that battle and throughout the war was whether Americans would really fight to win their independence.
During the first year of the Revolution, American war aims shifted from a desire for redress of grievances to a demand for complete independence. All of the following influenced this shift, EXCEPT
Washington's refusal to command the Continental Army until independence was declared.
Which of these was NOT among the actions taken by the Continental Congress, before the Declaration of Independence, that seemed to be the actions of an independent government?
dealing with Canada
The Declaration of Independence based the case for independence on
George III's infringements on American liberty.
The first, briefer section of the Declaration of Independence dealt with ________, while the second section included ________.
the general right of revolution based on natural rights; the specific offenses of King George III by which England forfeited its right to rule Americans
What was the most dominant common characteristic among the diverse group of people who remained loyal to Britain?
They were fearful of divisions and instability within American society.
What event helped overcome republican fears of a standing Continental Army?
the dwindling number of "citizen-soldier" volunteers
George Washington's desire to create a professional military establishment
was at first undermined by the republican fear of standing armies.
At first, the bulk of the Continental Army was recruited from the ________, but eventually most Continental soldiers were ________.
militias; drawn from the poorest and least free
After evacuating Boston, the British army took the initiative, launching a successful assault on
New York City.
The Continental Army gained a key victory over the British at ________, which demonstrated its ability as a fighting force and won support for its cause in the region.
The initial fighting in the war occurred in New England; most engagements in the two years after the Declaration of Independence took place in ________; and the conflict in the later war years raged across ________.
the middle states (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania); the Carolinas and Virginia
What tactical goal did General Howe have in mind when he captured Philadelphia in the summer of 1777?
to draw the Americans into battle
Which of the following does NOT describe the American relationship with the French?
The French offered an overt alliance in hopes they could regain their lost North American possessions.
"Saratoga changed everything," says your text, referring to which of the following?
Britain's defeat led to a treaty of alliance with France, opening a new phase of the war.
Which of the following best explains why the French fought against Britain in the American Revolution?
They feared that the Americans would reconcile with Britain, their historic enemy.
Despite great triumphs on the battlefield and at the diplomatic bargaining table, the Continental Army suffered at Valley Forge because
Congress and the civilians responsible for providing for the Army were disorganized and corrupt.
Which statement about the regulars of the Continental Army is true?
In social composition and military tactics, the American army came to resemble the British army.
In the war for independence, most Native Americans
were pressed by the European powers to become allies.
The British shifted to a southern strategy after 1778 because
they felt they could exploit loyalist support.
The slave revolts so dreaded by southern whites never materialized during the fight in the South. Which of the following is a possible reason this was the case?
The British encouraged escape and enlistment in the British army instead of an uprising against their masters.
What was the role of African Americans in the Revolution?
As the war dragged on, blacks—especially northern free blacks—were increasingly welcome to enlist.
George Washington's victory at Yorktown came as a joint achievement of the Continental Army and
All these answers are correct.
Which is the best statement of why the British signed the peace treaty granting American independence?
The timing of the occasional American victories led to a global situation where the British needed to salvage the rest of their empire by cutting their American losses.
In the end, what is the best answer to this question posed by the British: Would Americans fight for freedom?
Yes, but only on their own terms.
Though the Continental Army lost many conventional battles in the South, the British could not restore political control over the backcountry. Why?
the resilience of the rebel militias
A fundamental question at the outset of the Revolution was, "Will they fight?" Different individuals answered this in different ways. Which of the following does NOT accurately state one of the responses?
Most middle-class American revolutionaries preferred to join the Continental Army, rather than merely become part of their local militias.
The chapter introduction discusses the dilemma of citizens identifying with state and nation after the Revolution to make the point that
Americans had to experiment to find a way to create a united republic that confronted the realities of separate identities and inequalities.
The constitutions written by the states provided several important precedents for the later federal system created by the Constitution of 1787. One of the most important was the principle of
creating a written document as supreme law.
What document was essentially a continuation of the Second Continental Congress?
the Articles of Confederation
When peace was restored in the 1780s, Americans were forced to face some unanswered questions raised by their revolution. Which of the following was NOT among their questions?
None is a correct answer, because all these questions were among those raised by the revolution.
Following the revolution, while most states did not alter the basic structure of their governments, they did alter the balance of power among the different branches of government. Which of the following did they NOT do?
abolished the state legislative assemblies
The first state constitutions tried to make the government accountable to the people through
annual elections and representation by district.
What is the best description of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation?
thirteen independent state republics loosely joined together under a virtually powerless representative body
Which of the following was NOT a weakness of Congress under the Articles of Confederation?
It could not declare war or regulate Indian affairs.
The two most pressing problems for the new nation, which neither the states nor the Confederation Congress could solve, were
divisions between the states, and border disputes with Britain and Spain.
Immediately after the Revolution, the United States began to have difficulties with Spain. The disputes related to the boundaries of Florida and
navigation rights on the Mississippi.
One of the chief controversies that delayed initial ratification of the Articles of Confederation turned out to be the one area of substantial achievement by the Confederation Congress. This related to
Why did the expansion of backcountry districts create a more democratic membership in state legislatures?
They were less developed economically, and their leading men were less rich.
The Northwest Ordinance, which established a basis for territorial government for lands between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, included all of the following provisions EXCEPT
protection of civil and political rights for Indians.
Which of the following is NOT a true statement concerning African Americans following the Revolution?
The number of blacks in slavery quickly declined dramatically.
In American society after the Revolution, people believed more and more in ________, while in reality many parts of society were becoming ________.
The state of New Jersey created legislation in 1807 to close what loophole?
landowning women's suffrage
The most significant reform of the republican campaign against artificial privilege was the
dismantling of state-supported churches.
"Seduction literature" sent the unmistakable message that young women must preserve their
The Society of Cincinnati, a veterans' club for former Continental Army officers, attracted criticism because it
was perceived as aristocratic.
What was the most important result of the uprising of western Massachusetts debtor farmers led by Daniel Shays?
It gave crucial momentum to the growing movement to strengthen the national government.
Which of the following leaders shaped the framing of the federal Constitution more than anyone else?
The delegates to the Constitutional Convention, though from twelve different states, had two important things in common. These were that they were
All men of considerable political experience, who recognized the need for a stronger national union.
The Constitutional Convention deadlocked until it could find a compromise solution to the issue of
representation in Congress.
How did James Madison imagine that a federal republic with a strong central government might work, especially one that governed such a vast land area as that of the United States?
He believed that various interests and factions would cancel each other out in a large republic, and that virtuous national leaders would govern on behalf of all the people.
The Federalist Papers presented strong and convincing arguments in favor of
adopting the Constitution of 1787.
In the debates over ratification, a major fear of the Anti-Federalists was that
the most powerful groups in society would dominate and eventually rule in a corrupt and arbitrary fashion.
In the debates over ratification, the Federalists argued that the Constitution
would protect the nation from itself by providing a system of checks and balances.
The chapter introduction tells the story of the controversial whiskey tax of 1791 to make the point that
there were underlying uncertainties about whether the new government could really unite such a diverse people.
In the semisubsistence economy that existed in the American backcountry, money was seldom seen and was used primarily to
pay taxes and purchase imported goods.
A chief characteristic of a commercial economy was that it required
the availability of relatively cheap transportation.
As the new nation's first president, Washington lamented that nearly all of his actions while in office would
establish a model for those that followed.
Which of the following was NOT one of the goals of Alexander Hamilton's financial proposals?
stimulate the essentially virtuous nature of ordinary citizens, who could take advantage of new economic opportunities
Hamilton proposed to define the national debt in a way that increased what the nation had to pay. What two pressing financial problems did this seek to solve?
revenue and credit
Which of these contributed to the emergence of true popular political parties in the U.S.?
All these answers are correct.
As war broke out in Europe, the Washington administration
asserted the right to steer a path of neutrality.
How did foreign policy issues accelerate the emergence of political parties in the U.S.?
Divided over whether France represented republicanism or anarchy, the two sides came to suspect the worst intentions of the other and organized parties against each other.
Washington's farewell address
warned against the dangers of parties and called for a restoration of unity in the national political system.
According to the doctrine established in the landmark Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison, the
high court could rule on the constitutionality of federal laws.
Once in power, Jefferson
increasingly put pragmatic considerations above strict political principles.
The Louisiana Purchase was significant for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT that
Jefferson's constitutional scruples caused him to hesitate to act in the Republic's best interests.
Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) ________, while his brother Tecumseh ________.
led a religious revival among western tribes; led a military alliance among western tribes
The "Second Great Awakening" refers to
a revivalist religious movement at the beginning of the 1800s.
The second wave of settlers into frontier areas were typically
young easterners who married and started families.
The influential leaders of the younger Republicans, known as the "War Hawks,"
came mostly from the frontier areas and were aggressively nationalistic.
The chapter introduction tells the story of clockmaker Chauncey Jerome to make the point that
Jerome's rise and fall were made possible by the opportunities offered in an expanding market economy that bound Americans together through ever more complex and specialized ways.
A post-War of 1812 program of economic centralization, designed to promote internal economic development, was pushed by a group of aggressive young Republican nationalists. Which of the following did this program NOT include?
funding the war debt
The key component needed for the United States to have a truly national market economy was
an efficient transportation system
During the quarter-century after the War of 1812 ended, the most expansive force in the American economy was
Which of the following proved to be the breakthrough necessary to push cotton production to the center of the American agricultural stage?
invention of the cotton gin
The accelerating growth of a national market was due in large measure to the fact that the cost of ________ dropped by 95% between 1825 and 1855.
transportation on land
The steamboat was first introduced ________ but had its greatest impact ________.
on the Hudson River; on western rivers
In the years before the Civil War, what single enterprise employed more workers than any other enterprise in the country?
the postal system
Which of the following did farmers NOT begin to do in their shift toward commercial agriculture?
barter goods with friends and neighbors
John Marshall's Supreme Court decisions sought to promote American enterprise by all of the following methods EXCEPT
turning Indian lands over to white developers.
Taken as a body of legal doctrine, the rulings of the Marshall Court
enlarged federal power to an extraordinary degree.
Europeans especially noted what tendency in American life?
the emphasis on speed that pervaded every aspect of life
Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement concerning population trends from 1790 to 1820?
Immigration accounted for most of the population increase.
What was the most basic reason so many Americans moved so much, especially to the new western lands?
improved economic opportunity
Which of the following groups purchased the greatest amount of western land from the federal government?
Which of the following contributed to the growth of urban areas in early nineteenth-century America?
All these answers are correct
Which of the following does NOT help account for the shift to factory production?
inventions that gave the U.S. a head start over Europeans
What was key to making the Merrimack valley the nation's greatest industrial center in the first half of the nineteenth century?
regulating the river's waters
Industrial work in the factory resulted in ________ compared to work as a skilled artisan.
lower product quality
Craftworkers such as carpenters, printers, and tailors formed unions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the
National Trades' Union.
The national market economy created a society that was more differentiated and specialized. That new condition, in turn, caused
an increasingly unequal distribution of wealth in society, with those at the top controlling a greater share.
In its social impact, the national market economy did all of the following EXCEPT
significantly elevate the status of workers.
In the wake of the national market economy, which of the following became characteristic of Americans?
the hunger for respect and recognition through money-making ability
Which of the following was NOT characteristic of the economic changes that swept most of America in the early nineteenth century?
Subsistence agriculture was on the rise.
Why was American life marked by anxiety in the midst of early nineteenth-century prosperity?
because cyclical depressions made that prosperity seem fleeting
What conflict in values emerged as America went through its market revolution?
Although Americans professed to believe in equality, the national market economy coupled with American materialistic pursuits led to ever greater inequalities in wealth.