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Chapter 14 (Gen & Forens)
Terms in this set (17)
a type of applied anthropology that specializes in the changes and variations in the human skeleton for the purpose of legal inquiry; may provide basic ID info on skeletonized or badly decomposed remains
From a whole bone or part of a bone a scientist may be able to determine
an age range, sex, race, approximate height, cause of death/disease/anomaly
the study of bones (206 bones in adult human)
Function of Bones
provide structure and rigidity; protect soft tissue and organs; serves as an attachment for muscles; produce blood cells; serve as a storage area for minerals; can detoxify body
Which 4 bones can estimate a person's height?
femur, radius, tibia, and humerus
What are most accurate age estimations made from?
teeth, epiphyses (growth) plates, pubic symphysis, cranial sutures
shaft in long bones that make up most of the bone's length
found at the ends of the bones and their function is to allow for growth
Gender Differences in Bones
pelvis offers most distinctive traits; os pubic bones are wider in females; females have a wider subpubic angle; most females have a ventral arc present; rib cage and shoulders of males are wider
European, Middle Eastern, and Indian descent; have long and narrow nasal aperture, a triangular plate, oval orbits, narrow zygomatic arches, and narrow mandibles
African, Aborigine, and Melanesian descent; have a wide nasal aperture, a rectangular palate, square orbits, more pronounced zygomatic arches, the long bones are longer and have less curvature and greater density
Asian, Native American, and Polynesian descent; have a more rounded nasal aperture, a parabolic palate, rounded orbits, wide zygomatic arches, and more pointed mandibles
the identify of an individual can be determined by comparing a person's teeth to his/her dental records
Teeth are used because...
they are the hardest substances in the body (don't readily decompose), the are unique to the individual, and X-rays are a good record of a person's teeth given them unique identity
recreation of a person's face after determining the sex, age, and race of a person (uses erasers to make tissue depths in points in the skull & clay is used to build around the features)
a forensic anthropologist who has assisted law enforcement with 100s of cases & established the world's first/only lab devoted to the study of human decomposition at the Univ. of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility "The Body Farm"
"The Body Farm"
2.5 acre research facility developed by Bill Bass where bodies are placed in various conditions and allowed to decompose (main purpose is to observe and understand the processes and timetable of postmortem decay)
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