Terms in this set (60)
The percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.
Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it.
The ability of a liquid to flow against gravity up sediments.
Downward movement of water through soil.
Water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas.
The change of state from a gas to a liquid.
The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants.
Zone of Aeration
Region above the water table where materials are moist, but pores contain mostly air.
Zone of Saturation
Zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water.
The upper surface of underground water; the upper boundary of the zone of saturation.
The layer of rock where water can no longer pass through.
The mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals without changing the composition.
The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup.
Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
The process by which outer rock layers are stripped away by alternating hot and cold temperatures.
The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
Roots get into cracks or pores in rock, expand as they grow, wedging the rock apart
A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust.
Carbonic acid in rain causing calcite to dissolve in limestone.
A hole formed when limestone is dissolved, causing the land above to collapse.
Soil that has been moved away from its parent material by water, wind, or a glacier.
Soil that remains above its parent rock.
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away.
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
A deposit of wind-blown sand.
Land bordering the edges of a river or stream.
The bottom part of a river
A curve or bend in the course of a river.
Watershed (Drainage Basin)
The land area that supplies water to a river system.
The crescent-shaped, cutoff body of water that remains after a river carves a new channel.
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake.
When a river enters an ocean, sediments organize themselves horizontally from big to small.
Sorting of sediments that occurs when mixed sediments are quickly deposited with the smallest rocks on top and the largest rocks on bottom.
A landform with high elevation and high relief.
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
A large area of flat land.
The path of a stream which is influenced by topography and geological structures
The movement of a large mass of sediment or a section of land down a slope.
A slow mass movement of sediments down a hill.
A mass of rock and soil suddenly slips down a slope.
A slide of a large mass of dirt and rock down a mountain or cliff.
The sudden flow of mud down a slope because of gravity.
A fast mass movement of rocks that break loose from a steep slope.
A large mass of ice or snow sliding down a mountain.
Any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land.
A mass of floating ice that broke away from a glacier.
Unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier.
End moraine which marks the furthest advancement of a glacier.
An ice-transported boulder that was not derived from the bedrock near its present site.
An elongated hill of glacial till that is smoothed in the direction of the glacier's flow.
Lake formed when a block of glacial ice melts.
The area at the leading edge of the glacier where the meltwater flows and deposits outwash. These sediments are sorted and layered due to the running water from the melted glacier.
Effects of ocean currents and waves on the shorelines.
The movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle.
Sand deposits that are parallel to the beach.
Low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline.
Small river or stream that flows in to a larger river or stream; a branch of the river.