The central part of the earth below the mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
Earth's outermost layer of rock
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
One plate going under another plate
Divergent Plate Boundary
An area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other.
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
Convergent Plate Boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
Transform Plate Boundary
Boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other.
A break in the earth's crust
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
the series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Rock formed when chemical reactions cement sediments together, hardening them
rock that has been changed by heat and pressure.
the mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
The loss of some or all of a soil's ability to support plant growth
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
The removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
unwanted waste material created during mining.
Also known as Tailings
Mine in which ore is exposed at the surface in a large excavation.
a mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives.
method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans
The extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits.
AP Environmental Science Earth Systems
apes chapter 8
APES - Friedland and Relyea Chapter 8
APES Ch 8- Earth Systems
Chemical Flash Cards