Chapter 8

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Terms in this set (...)

Core
The central part of the earth below the mantle
Mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
Asthenosphere
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
Lithosphere
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
Earth's Crust
Earth's outermost layer of rock
Hot Spot
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
Subduction
One plate going under another plate
Divergent Plate Boundary
An area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other.
Seafloor spreading
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
Convergent Plate Boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
Transform Plate Boundary
Boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other.
Fault
A break in the earth's crust
Richter Scale
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
Rock Cycle
the series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock
Igneous rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Sedimentary rock
Rock formed when chemical reactions cement sediments together, hardening them
Metamorphic rock
rock that has been changed by heat and pressure.
Physical Weathering
the mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals
Chemical Weathering
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
Soil degradation
The loss of some or all of a soil's ability to support plant growth
Ore
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Strip mining
The removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
Mining spoils
unwanted waste material created during mining.
Also known as Tailings
Open-pit mine
Mine in which ore is exposed at the surface in a large excavation.
Mountaintop removal
a mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives.
Placer mining
method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans
Subsurface mining
The extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits.