What is the goal of infection control?
to break the chain of infection and minimize the risks of disease transmission
What are the four links in the chain of infection?
2.) Number of microorganisms
3.) susceptible host
4.) portal of entry
to cause disease, a high enough number of pathogenic microbes must be present to overwhelm the body's defense
Number of Microorganisms
must have access to the blood supply though a break in the skin, a cut, or even a bite
infections caused by normally nonpathogenic organisms in individuals whose resistance to disease is decreased
occurs when microbes first are transmitted to an object or surface then are transferred to another person who touches that object or surface
also known as a droplet infection, refers to the spread of disease through droplets of moisture that contain bacteria or viruses
contamination often produced by the high speed handpiece, ultrasonic cleaner, air/water syringe during dental procedures
Aerosols, spray, and spatter
occurs through direct contact or indirect contact with blood or other bodily fluids that are infectious
transmission through contaminated food that has not been cooked or refrigerated properly and by water that has been contaminated by human or animal fecal matter
Food and Water
If proper sanitation procedures such as hand washing are not followed after using the restroom or changing a diaper
antibodies are introduced into the body by artificial means through immunization or vaccination
artificially acquired immunity
five ways of disease transmission in the dental office.
-patient to dental team
-dental team to patient
-patient to patient
-dental office to community
-community to dental office
usually occurs through direct contact, indirect contact, or droplet infection
patient to dental team
this form of transmission usually occurs if the dental team member has lesions or cuts on his or her hands, as well as through droplet infection
dental team to patient
this type of transmission occurs when contaminated instruments used on one patient are then used on another patient. Only one case of this has been reported in dentistry
patient to patient
this type of transmission occurs when contaminated items are sent to a dental lab
dental office to community
this type of transmission occurs when contaminated municipal water supply enters the office and is in the dental unit water lines
community to dental office
What are two federal agencies that play an important role in infection control in dentistry?
CDC and OSHA
What agency is a regulatory agency and has a Blood Borne Pathogen standard that is the most important law in dentistry?
What requires employers to protect their employees from exposure to blood and other potentially infectious material in the workplace?
OSHA's Blood-borne Pathogen Standard
Each dental office must have a written plan that clearly states how that office complies with the BBP standard. What is this plan called?
Exposure Control Plan
What is based on the concept that all human blood and body fluids are treated as if known to be infected with a blood-borne disease?
What is a standard of care that is designed to protect healthcare providers from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other body fluid?
What is any reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane contact, or percutaneous injury with blood or any other infectious material?
What is the 7 step process for instrument sterilization?
What are the different classifications of waste?
Blood and blood soaked materials
What surfaces can be directly contaminated by direct spray, or spatter during dental procedures or by contact with dental personnel's gloved hands?
Clinical Contact Surfaces
surfaces that are not directly touched but often become touched by contaminated instruments
surfaces do not actually contact members of the dental team or contaminated instruments or supplies
Splash, spatter, droplet
What are the two methods of dealing with surface contamination?
Cleaning and Disinfecting
intended to kill disease causing organisms that remain on the surface after precleaning. DOES NOT KILL SPORES
What is one of the most important responsibilities of the dental assistant?
to process contaminated instruments
What are three ways that instruments can be pre-cleaned?
ultrasonic cleaning, instrument washing, and hand scrubbing
refers to sterilizing unpackaged instruments with the use of short exposure times
Works similar to a stea autoclave system except a chemical combination is used to create the vapor for sterilization instead of water
Unsaturated Chemical Vapor Steriization
operate by heating up air and transferring the heat from the air to the instruments
Dry Heat Sterilizers
What is the ONLY way to determine whether or not sterilization has occurred and confirm that bacteria and spores have been killed?