Unit 3: Infection Control

policies and practices designed to prevent the spread of infectious agents
Infection Control
Who is exposed to blood and other potentially infectious materials, such as saliva
the dental team
What is the goal of infection control?
to break the chain of infection and minimize the risks of disease transmission
the conditions that must be present for infection to occur
Chain of Infection
What are the four links in the chain of infection?
1.) Virulence
2.) Number of microorganisms
3.) susceptible host
4.) portal of entry
refers to the degree of strength of an organism in its ability to cause disease
to cause disease, a high enough number of pathogenic microbes must be present to overwhelm the body's defense
Number of Microorganisms
a person who is unable to resist infection by a particular apthogen
Susceptible host
means of the pathogen to enter the body
Portal of entry
enters through the mouth or nose
Airborne Pathogen
must have access to the blood supply though a break in the skin, a cut, or even a bite
Blood-borne pathogens
What are four types of infections?
an infection of short duration that is often severe
Acute Infection
an infection of long duration
Chronic Infection
a persistent infection in which symptoms "come and go"
Latent Infection
infections caused by normally nonpathogenic organisms in individuals whose resistance to disease is decreased
Opportunistic Infection
occurs through person to person contact
Disease Transmission
occurs when microbes first are transmitted to an object or surface then are transferred to another person who touches that object or surface
Indirect transmission
also known as a droplet infection, refers to the spread of disease through droplets of moisture that contain bacteria or viruses
Airborne Transmission
contamination often produced by the high speed handpiece, ultrasonic cleaner, air/water syringe during dental procedures
Aerosols, spray, and spatter
occurs when blood borne pathogens are transferred through the skin
Parenteral transmission
occurs through direct contact or indirect contact with blood or other bodily fluids that are infectious
Blood-borne transmission
transmission through contaminated food that has not been cooked or refrigerated properly and by water that has been contaminated by human or animal fecal matter
Food and Water
If proper sanitation procedures such as hand washing are not followed after using the restroom or changing a diaper
Fecal-Oral Transmission
responsible for providing resistance to communicable diseases
The Immune System
Immunity that is present at birth
Inherited Immunity
immunity that is developed over a person's lifetime
Acquired immunity
occurs when a person has previously contracted a disease and recovered
Naturally acquired immunity
antibodies are introduced into the body by artificial means through immunization or vaccination
artificially acquired immunity
five ways of disease transmission in the dental office.
-patient to dental team
-dental team to patient
-patient to patient
-dental office to community
-community to dental office
usually occurs through direct contact, indirect contact, or droplet infection
patient to dental team
this form of transmission usually occurs if the dental team member has lesions or cuts on his or her hands, as well as through droplet infection
dental team to patient
this type of transmission occurs when contaminated instruments used on one patient are then used on another patient. Only one case of this has been reported in dentistry
patient to patient
this type of transmission occurs when contaminated items are sent to a dental lab
dental office to community
this type of transmission occurs when contaminated municipal water supply enters the office and is in the dental unit water lines
community to dental office
What are two federal agencies that play an important role in infection control in dentistry?
What agency is a regulatory agency and has a Blood Borne Pathogen standard that is the most important law in dentistry?
What requires employers to protect their employees from exposure to blood and other potentially infectious material in the workplace?
OSHA's Blood-borne Pathogen Standard
Each dental office must have a written plan that clearly states how that office complies with the BBP standard. What is this plan called?
Exposure Control Plan
What is based on the concept that all human blood and body fluids are treated as if known to be infected with a blood-borne disease?
Universal Precautions
What is a standard of care that is designed to protect healthcare providers from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other body fluid?
Standard Precautions
What is any reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane contact, or percutaneous injury with blood or any other infectious material?
Occupational Exposure
What category of occupational exposure do dental assistants fall under?
Category I
What vaccination is the employer required to offer within 10 days of employment?
Hepatitis B
What is crucial to prevent the spread of disease?
waterless antiseptic agents, such as gels, foams, and rinses
Alcohol Based Hand Rubs
What should the alcohol content of alcohol based hand rubs be?
60 to 95 percent
What does PPE include?
Protective Clothing
Protective Eyewear
Treatment Gloves
Utility Gloves
What is the 7 step process for instrument sterilization?
What are the different classifications of waste?
General Waste
Hazardous Waste
Contaminated Waste
Infectious Waste
Blood and blood soaked materials
Pathogenic waste
What type of waste includes soft tissue and extracted teeth?
Pathogenic Waste
What type of waste presents danger to humans or the environment?
Hazardous Waste
What type of waste has been in contact with blood or other bodily fluids?
Contaminated Waste
What type of waste is capable of transmitting an infectious disease?
Infectious Waste (Biohazard)
What should you do while handling waste?
wear the appropriate PPE
Surface that includes foors, walls, and sinks
Housekeeping Surfaces
What surfaces can be directly contaminated by direct spray, or spatter during dental procedures or by contact with dental personnel's gloved hands?
Clinical Contact Surfaces
What are three categories of clinical contact surfaces?
Splash, Spatter, Droplet
surfaces that are directly touched and contaminated during treatment
Touch Surfaces
surfaces that are not directly touched but often become touched by contaminated instruments
Transfer Surfaces
surfaces do not actually contact members of the dental team or contaminated instruments or supplies
Splash, spatter, droplet
What are the two methods of dealing with surface contamination?
Surface Barriers
Cleaning and Disinfecting
intended to kill disease causing organisms that remain on the surface after precleaning. DOES NOT KILL SPORES
What level of disinfection would be used for a semicritical item?
High Level
What type of disinfection is used to for noncritical items?
Intermediate Leverl
What level of disinfection is used on surfaces not contaminated with blood?
Low Level
What disinfectants are tuberculocidal?
hospital disinfectants registered with the EPA
used as skin antiseptics and surface disinfectants
What is an example of greener infection control?
digital radiography
What is one of the most important responsibilities of the dental assistant?
to process contaminated instruments
instrument that touches bone or penetrates soft tissue
Critical Instrument
Instrument that touches mucous membranes
semicritical instrument
instrument that only come in contact with the skin
noncritical instrument
What are the two areas that the sterilization area is broken down into?
Contaminated and Clean
What are three ways that instruments can be pre-cleaned?
ultrasonic cleaning, instrument washing, and hand scrubbing
used to loosen and remove debris from instruments using sound waves
Ultrasonic Cleaning
work similar to household dishwashers
Instrument Washing Machins
What does sterilization kill?
ALL forms of microbes including spores
uses steam under pressure
Steam Autoclave
In an autoclave what kills the microbes?
The heat
refers to sterilizing unpackaged instruments with the use of short exposure times
Flash Sterilization
Works similar to a stea autoclave system except a chemical combination is used to create the vapor for sterilization instead of water
Unsaturated Chemical Vapor Steriization
operate by heating up air and transferring the heat from the air to the instruments
Dry Heat Sterilizers
sterilizer similar to an oven
Static Air
Rapid heat transfer circulates hot air throughout the chamber at a high velocity
Forced Air
used to determine id sterilization is occuring
Sterilization Monitoring
external and identify if the packs have been exposed to a certain temperature
Process Indicators
internal and respond to temperature, pressure, and time
Process intergrators
What is the ONLY way to determine whether or not sterilization has occurred and confirm that bacteria and spores have been killed?
Biological Monitoring
What does it mean when the biological monitoring test comes back positive?
Sterilization has failed