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Developed/developing countries - Characteristics
Terms in this set (19)
Developed country: define
A country that has progressed adequately with regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators, such as Australia and Japan. These countries have access to food, high levels or education and employment, and earn high average incomes.
Developing country: define
A country that has not progressed adequately with regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators, such as Ethiopia and Kenya. These countries lack access to health care and have unsafe water and sanitation.
Characteristics of developed/developing countries
Variations occur between and within all countries.
A range of factors relating to the financial or economic state of a country can influence the opportunities and resources that are available for its citizens.
"Poverty" is a term that is commonly used to describe the lack of access to resources, often as a result of a lack of access to money.
Economic: factors (1)
- Wide/limited range of industries: Mining, processing, manufacturing, education, health, scientific research and technology/ farming, primary production.
- Global trade: A wide/limited range of industries increases/reduces the ability of developing countries to trade on the global market, as they may/may not be able to generate goods that other countries require.
Economic: factors (2)
- Low/high international debt: Developing countries often have high levels of debt compared to developed countries, due to large sums of money being borrowed, by developing countries, in an attempt to reduce poverty levels.
- High/low average incomes
A range of factors associated...
Social: factors (1)
- Developed countries often experience gender equality, both males and females have opportunities and choices with regards to education, employment, community participation and recreation.
- Females in underdeveloped countries have limited opportunities (in regards to above) compared to males in society.
Social: factors (2)
- Access to contraception, choice with regards to family planning, career choices and education contribute to more cases of lower birth rates in developed countries compared to undeveloped countries.
- High birth rates in many developing countries can limit the ability of parents to care for all of their children and provide them with the resources required to live a healthy life.
Social: factors (3)
Education and Employment:
- High rates of education and employment are characteristic of most developed countries. People often have choices with regards to the level of education and the type of career they pursue.
- Many developing countries do not have a developed education system, and career options are often limited.
- Families in developing countries usually have to pay for their children to attend school, as opposed to developed countries, where governments contribute significant funds to provide education opportunities.
Social: factors (4)
Social security and legal systems:
- High levels of economic development and stable political systems increase the ability of governments in developed countries to provide social security payments for those in need. Individuals who are unemployed or unable to work as a result of illness or disability are often provided with financial assistance to assist in promoting their well-being.
- Developing countries often do not have the means to provide assistance to their citizens, and those who are unemployed or unable to work are driven further into poverty.
Social: factors (5)
-Developed countries also have health systems. People are usually able to access basic health care when they need it.
- Those in developing countries often lack access to suitable health care, which affects the level of well-being they experience.
Social: factors (6)
Access to technology:
- Technology is more accessible in developed countries. This is due to a combination of economic resources, infrastructure and education.
- Developing countries often lack access to technology, which impacts on the ability of citizens to gain an education and income.
- Technology includes 24/7 access to communication systems and the internet. Technology can be used to assist countries in developing their economies, building trade opportunities and furthering education.
Social: factors (7)
No history of colonisation:
- Throughout history, many Western European nations, including Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany and Belgium, colonised many countries in Africa and Asia.
- Many developing countries have a history of colonisation. The countries that were colonised often had their natural resources exploited by the colinisers. This reduced the ability for them to develop their own trade potential and generate decent incomes for themselves, putting them in a position to find employment in association with the colonising countries. Low incomes and loss of land affected the ability of native peoples to access resources required for a decent standard of living, such as food and shelter.
Characteristics of the environment contribute to the level of development experienced in all countries. Aspects of the environment that are often characteristic of developed and developing countries relate to accessibility of food, water, adequate housing and infrastructure.
Environmental: factors (1)
Safe water and sanitation:
Environmental: factors (2)
Access to food:
- People in developed countries generally have access to a quality food supply.
- Those in developing countries, however, often lack food security. - -- Natural disasters such as floods and droughts tend to have a more pronounced impact on the availability of food for those in developing countries, as they lack the financial resources to purchase food in emergency situations.
Environmental: factors (3)
- Many people in developing countries lack access to adequate housing, compared to those living in developed countries. They often live in substandard housing with poor ventilation, lack of heating and cooling, poor resistance to infestation of disease-carrying organisms such as insects, lack of cooking facilities and running water, and poor protection from the elements. In many developing countries, urban slums are also a common feature of cities compared to developed countries.
Environmental: factors (4)
- Infrastructure is responsible for many differences between developed and developing countries.
- Developed countries usually have adequate roads, piped water, sewerage systems, electricity grids and telecommunication systems.
- People living in developing countries often lack access to such facilities, especially in rural and remote areas and urban slums.
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