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Chapter 5: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrmination
Terms in this set (106)
prejudice and discrimination based on a person's racial background, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another.
prejudice and discrimination based on a person's gender, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender over another.
a belief or association that links a whole group of people with certain traits or characteristics.
negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups.
behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group.
a form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize.
racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally.
a form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings.
being persistently stereotyped, perceived as deviant, and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic.
the experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes about one's group.
the classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes
groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity.
groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, or identity.
outgroup homogeneity effect
the tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups.
social dominance orientation
a desire to see one's ingroup as dominant over other groups and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups.
system justification theory
a theory that proposes that people are motivated (at least in part) to defend and justify the existing social, political, and economic conditions.
stereotype content model
a model proposing that the relative status and competition between groups influence group stereotypes along the dimensions of competence and warmth.
a shared goal that can be achieved only through cooperation among individuals or groups.
realistic conflict theory
the theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources.
feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others.
the tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups.
social identity theory
the theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem.
social role theory
the theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women.
an overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated.
a method of presenting stimuli so faintly or rapidly that people do not have any conscious awareness of having been exposed to them.
the theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce intergroup prejudice under certain conditions.
a cooperative learning method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in group efforts.
at the individual level, racism and sexism are forms of prejudice and discrimination based on?
a person's racial or gender background.
at the institutional level and cultural level, racism and sexism involve?
practices that promote the domination of one racial group or gender over another.
over the years, various data show a decline in?
negative views of black Americans.
how are modern forms of racism different than blatant racism? in what situations?
modern forms of racism are subtle and surface in less direct ways, particularly in situations where people can rationalize racist behavior.
what are the effects of someone's ambivalence concerning race?
it can lead them to exhibit biases in favor of or against particular groups, depending on the context.
how does racism work implicitly?
stereotypes and prejudice can fuel discrimination w/o conscious intent or awareness on the part of perceivers.
racial bias in the court
several studies illustrate subtle ways that racial bias can have serious effects on sentencing and verdicts of convicted criminals or suspects.
how do researchers measure implicit racism
covert measures that detect and measure subtle forms of prejudice and discrimination.
implicit racism and healthcare
implicit racism is associated with poorer treatment by doctors and health care providers of patients from racial and ethnic minority groups.
Effects of interracial interactions for people relatively high in implicit racism
-feelings of threat
-drain cognitive resources
why do white people try to avoid interracial interactions?
they are worried about appearing racist in these interactions. they do this by going out of their way to avoid any mention of race even when it is relevant.
how is sexism different from other forms of prejudice and discrimination?
-gender stereotypes are descriptive
-they indicate what the majority of people in a society believe men and women should be.
-ingroup and outgroup members are intimately familiar with each-other.
hostile sexism vs. benevolent sexism
-characterized by negative and resentful feelings toward women
-characterized by affectionate, chivalrous, but potentially patronizing feelings toward women
what groups exhibit the highest level of hostile/benevolent sexism?
individuals from countries with the greatest degree of economic and political inequality between men and women.
women in the popular media
-viewed more as mere bodies and objects
-less as fully functioning human beings
women vs. men in occupations
difficult dilemma women often face
if they behave consistently with gender stereotypes, they may be liked more but respected less.
being in a job that is traditionally seen as more typical of the other gender:
especially challenging for both men and women
other forms of bias and discrimination
most overt form of discrmination
biased treatment of people presumed to be gay
studies show that some of the more subtle ways that people are discriminated against based on their sexual orientation
what happens when members of stigmatized groups perceive other's reactions to them as discrimination?
they experience both benefits and drawbacks to their self-esteem and feelings of control.
effects of being stigmatized?
-increased risk of serious and long-term physical and mental health problems
effects of stereotype threat
-affects identity of members of stereotyped or devalued groups
-slight changes in a setting can reduce stereotype threat and its negative effects significantly.
stereotype threat and african americans/female students in academic settings
studies show that this threat harms their performance in the classroom.
stereotype threat and bulk of research
shows a huge and growing list of groups whos members show under performance and performance-impairing behaviors when a negative stereotype about their abilities is made relevant.
processes behind stereotype threat
-leads to increased arousal
-triggers attempts to suppress negative stereotypes
-impairs working memory
-cases individuals to feel dejection-related emotions or to engage in negative thinking
benefits of social categorization
-allow perceivers to make quick inferences about group members
-lead to inaccurate judgement
people who think of race as stable, biologically determined
less likely to interact with racial outgroup members
more likely to accept racial inequalities than are people who see race as more socially determined
people tend to exaggerate
the differences between ingroups and outgroups.
research using brain imaging and cognitive methods suggests
merely categorizing people as outgroup members can lead perceivers to process information about outgroup members less deeply.
perceivers sometimes _____________outgroups in a variety of ways.
"us" versus "them"
the tendency in people to divide the world into ingroups and outgroups
favors the former over the latter in numerous ways is likely to be an evolved tendency due to the social nature of our species
what happens when people's motives for self-protection are aroused?
they show stronger biases against threatening outgroups
what happens when people are reminded about mortality?
this triggers various ingroup biases, including negative stereotypes and behaviors that demonstrate prejudice toward a variety of outgroups.
what do people with a social dominance orientation exhibit?
a desire to see their ingroups as dominant over other groups
tend to identify more strongly with their ingroup and to be more likely to disparage members of outrgroups
people who tend to endorse and legitimize existing social arrangements show signs of
-outgroup favoritism even when their group holds a relatively disadvantaged position in society
two dimensions of group stereotypes:
Robbers Cave study
-boys divided into rival groups quickly showed intergroup prejudice.
-this prejudice was reduced when the boys were brought together through tasks that required intergroup cooperation.
participants categorized into arbitrary minimal groups discriminate
in favor of the ingroup
research on social identity theory shows that threats to the self
cause individuals to derogate outgroups and that this behavior in turn increases self-esteem
how do cultural differences influence social identity processes?
-people from collectivist cultures show ingroup biases
-individualists are more likely to try to boost their self-esteem through overt ingroup-enhancing biases.
how do we unconsciously learn information relevant to stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination?
by what we see around us in our culture, groups, and families.
example of gender-stereotypical preferences in boys and girls
the differences in liking toys at very early stages
how early do gender stereotypes bias perceptions in boys and girls?
from the moment they are born
what magnifies perceived differences between men and women?
contrasting social roles that are occupied.
the mass media...
fosters stereotypes of various groups
portrayals of men and women in advertising
influence the behavior and attitudes of men and women
fundamental effect of stereotyping
influences people's perceptions and interpretations of the behaviors of group members
causes them to perceive confirmation of their stereotype-based expectancies.
how stereotypes people hold about group members effects those group members
leads them to behave in biased ways toward those members, causing the latter to behave consistently with the stereotypes.
produces a self-fulfilling prophecy.
people tend to make attributions about the causes of group members' behaviors to
help maintain their stereotypes.
group members who do not fit the mold are often subjected to this, leaving the overall stereotype intact.
stereotypes that we don't believe
are still activated without our awareness or intention and can influence our perceptions and reactions.
influences of stereotype activation
-how accessible various stereotypes are in perceivers minds
-how prejudiced the perceivers are
example of how motivation makes stereotype activation more likely to occur, and less likely to occur
when perceivers are highly motivated to feel better about themselves, they may become more likely to activate some stereotypes and suppress others.
people who are intrinsically motivated to not be prejudiced may be able to control stereotype activation and application more than other people
the shooting of an unarmed African man by NYC police officers triggered
a great deal of controversy and inspired social psychology experiments designed to contribute to an understanding of the issues involved.
research and guns/race
studies conclude that perceivers tend to be more biased toward seeing an unarmed man as holding a weapon and posing a threat if he is black than if he is white.
training on bias
may be effective in reducing the tendency of civilians or police officers to exhibit this bias.
racial bias is even evident among perceivers who do not
endorse negative stereotypes or prejudiced attitudes.
awareness of the stereotype is a key factor.
responsible for the killing of Treyvon Martin and the reactions to the case
-distrust of outgroup members
-prevalence of particular stereotypes in the culture and through the media
-automatic stereotype activation
What reduces intergroup prejudice?
-contact involves equal status between the groups
-personal interactions between members of the different groups
-groups have a shared super ordinate goal
-social norms favor intergroup contact.
results of extensive reviews of the contact hypothesis indicate that
intergroup contact tends to reduce prejudice, especially if the ideal conditions for contact are met.
having friends from outgroups is associated with
decreased intergroup anxiety and prejudice.
this link establishes both correlational and experimental studies
research on extended contact effect (also known as the indirect contact effect)
having an ingroup friend who has a good and close relationship with a member of an outgroup can reduce one's prejudice toward the outgroup
why do schools often fail to meet the conditions for reducing prejudice?
-competition is too high
-the right kinds of contact can improve attitudes and behaviors in a school setting
research on the Common Ingroup Identity Model
-members of different groups recategorize themselves as members of a more inclusive superordinate group
-intergroup attitudes and relations tend to improve
who benefits from dual-identity categorizations and what are the benefits?
-members of minority groups or groups that have less power in a society
-allows them to preserve their smaller group identity but to recognize their connection with the majority or more powerful group.
situational factors and stereotype threat
even small changes in situational factors that give rise to stereotype threat can reduce or eliminate their effects in particular settings
individuals tend to be more protected against stereotype threats when
when they feel trust and safety in the situation
research on middle schoolers and reducing stereotype threat
simply intervention of asking students to think about values that were important to them dramatically improved the performance of African American students.
what does stereotype undermine? how can this be combated?
--undermines an individual's sense of belonging
--interventions that promote feelings of belonging have been effective in reducing stereotype threat effects.
what factors contribute to cognitive exhaustion when trying to suppress stereotyping and what is the result?
-other aspects that impair cognitive resources
-people are less able to control their stereotypes
externally driven motivation to control prejudice
this means not wanting to merely appear to others to be prejudiced.
tend to be less successful at exerting control
internally driven motivation to control prejudice
not wanting to be prejudiced, regardless of whether or not others would find out.
are more successful at exerting control than externally driven motivators.
individuals can become relatively expert at regulating prejudiced responses because
they recognize the situational factors that have caused them to fail to live up to their egalitarian ideals in the past.
research on anti prejudice messages
anti-prejudice messages appeal more to internal reasons to control prejudice than external reasons and are more effective.
appeals to externally driven factors, such as not wanting to get into trouble for appearing racist, backfire and increase expressions of prejudice
research on how people try to reduce stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
-think of examples that counter stereotypes, which takes the perspective of others.
-learning how race is more ambiguous and socially determined than simply a genetic, fixed category
-taking a multicultural rather than colorblind approach to intergroup relations.
changes in the kinds of information perpetuated in one's culture can
alter how one perceives social groups
research on American High Schools
positive effects of peers and media can promote anti-prejudice norms
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