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46 terms

7th gr life science ch 1 exploring and classifying life

binominal nomenclature
two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name
theory that living things come only from other living things
smallest unit of an organism that can carry on life functions; has an orderly structure and contains hereditary material
standard to which the outcome of a test is compared
first word of the two-word scientific name used to identify a group of similar species
maintaining the proper conditions inside an organism
prediction that can be tested
first and largest category used to classify organisms
statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true consistently
any living thing
evolutionary history of an organism; used today to group organisms into six kingdoms
scientific methods
organized procedures used to solve problems that can include (1) stating the problem, (2) gathering information, (3) forming a hypothesis, (4) testing the hypothesis with an experiment, (5) analyzing data, (6) drawing conclusions, and (7) report results.
spontaneous generation
early theory that living things come from nonliving things; was disproved by Louis Pasteur in the 1800's
explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge resulting from many observations and experiments
something in an experiment that can change
what all living things are
they way an organism reacts to a stimulus, often results in movement
anything that causes change in an organism
what all living things use
all things grow and ___________
number of cells
growth of many-celled organisms are due to an increase of ______________
size of cells
growth of one-celled organisms is due to an increase in ______________
changes that take place during the life of an organism
when living things make more of themselves
place to live and raw materials
what all living things need to live
place to live
provides for all of the organism's needs
raw materials
water, proteins, fats, and sugars
classified organisms more than 2,000 years ago
Carolus Linnaeus
introduced a classification system based on similar structures of organisms
smallest classification category
fertile offspring
what organisms that belong to the same species can mate and produce
what a species looks like, where it is found, or who discovered it
what the second word in the name of a species that tells about that species
scientific names
used to avoid mistakes, show that organisms in the same genus are related, give descriptive info, and allow information to be organized easily
field guides
descriptions and illustrations of organisms
dichotomous keys
detailed lists of identifying characteristics that include scientific names
measures length
measures volume
grams, tonne
measures mass
5 characteristics of living things
living things are organized, respond, use energy, grow & develop, and reproduce
Francesco Redi
in 1668 showed maggots hatch from eggs that flies lay on meat and not from the meat itself
John Needham
in 1745 mistakenly concluded that microorganisms spontaneously developed
Lazzaro Spallanzani
in 1768 designed an experiment to show that tiny organisms came from other organisms
Louis Pasteur
in 1859 disproved spontaneous generation
Alexander I. Oparin
in 1924 created theory "primordial soup" that the gases in Earth's early atmosphere combined to form more complex compounds found in living things.
gases in Oparin's theory
ammonia, hydrogen, methane, and water vapor
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
in 1953 tested Oparin's hyposthesis and showed that chemicals found in living things could be produced