Terms in this set (62)
What stage, of metabolism of glucose, are most of the carbon atoms from glucose oxidized?
The Citric Acid Cycle (TCA)
How many ATP can you generate from each individual citrate, including those derived from electron transport/Oxidative phosphorylation ?
Glycerol is involved in the synthesis of which class of macromolecules?
In which stage in glucose breakdown is water actually fired?
e- transport/ oxidation and phosphate ox
Hungry cell acquire big supply of 1,3- biphosphoglycerate. How many ATPs can you get from the complete oxidation of each molecule of 1,3-biphos to CO2 and water, including from NADH and FADH2 that are generated along the way.
How many ATPs does it take to synthesize a triglyceride as described in class?
Hungry and eat a big supply of fructose, 1,6-diphosphate for each u metabolize through electron trans/oxidation phos. How many net ATPs will you generate?
Each glucose yields:
How many ATPs should we theoretically be able to synthesize from ADP + Pi?
Glucose break down takes -686 kcal
ADP + Pi -> ATP 7.3
686/7.3 = 94 ATP
in reality we get 36 ATP per glucose
GLucose.. Pyruvate Oxi... CAC... Electron transport/ATP Synth... CO2+ H2O
energy yielding metabolic pathway
NAD-> NADH makes
FAD-> FADH2 makes
Citric acid cycle releases _________than glycolysis
more free energy
How many ATPs per glucose are generated in glycolysis?
10 NADH= 30ATP
2FADH= 4 ATP
add.... 38 ATP
then costs 1 ATP to get 2 NADH into membrane
TOTAL: 36 ATP
Mes-stahl experiment: What is most important Q being asked?
Do the 2 strands of DNA separate from one another during replication?
If you mix N14 and N15 then N14 then N15
HL and LL
MES STAHL:: Imagine cells were grown in N15 and then shifter to time 0 to N14 media. If DNA replication proceeds by semi conservative mechanism, what would be the proportion of H:H to H:L to L:L after 3 rounds of replication
Frameshift mutations can be caused by
either insertion or deletion of a a nucleotide base, causing immediate missense... altered reading frame
Nucleotide pair substitution
SILENT: isnt as bad as frameshift, bc could still match to correct base
codon correct still
NOT SILENT: sickle cell anemia
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
large scale chromosomal mutation. 3 Nucleotide deletion of 1 amino acid. 1 whole amino acid is missing.
Consider a sequence w codon 5'ACU'3 what would be the anticodon that H-bonds with this codon
5' AGU 3"
Imagine a hungry cell, and you get a large supply of acetyl Coa. How many ATP can you make from each of these acetyl Coa molecules using all of the TCA and oxidative p pathway?
largest to smallest (nucleus, gene, protein, chromosome)
nucleus > Chromosome > gene > protein
What two polysaccharides have branching?
starch and glycogen
Where does the energy come from to covert ADP to ATP
Which isnt on a polysome? (DNA, tRNA, ribosomal proteins, mRNA, all)
If you start with 1 DNA molecules and subject it to 6 rounds of polymerase chain rxns, how many molecules of DNA will you have at the end?
In the Hershey Chase experiment, using radioactive S35 and P25, what did the S35 label?
Protein bc S is present in a couple amino acids
what is a nuclear localization sight made out of
amino acids within the DNA polymerase protein itself
(a series of positively charged amino acids on
the surface of a protein)
help direct proteins to the correct location
Imagine examining fatty composition of the phospholipid in the membrane of an organism. The fatty acid chains are longer in the day and more unsaturated than during the night. Why
The organism is responding to the temp changes and trying to maintain membrane fluidity
Which protein synthesizes their nucleic acid products in the 3' to 5' direction?
which molecule would require the most energy to synthesize?
an average mRNA molecule
Consider a membrane protein that spans the entire width of the plasma membrane, having approx 200 a.as on either side of the membrane and 18 a.as actually going through the membrane. where in the protein would you most likely observe disulfide bonding?
in the region of the protein extending into the outside of the cell
(Oxidating Env outside -> promotes disulfide bonding)
For each single glucose molecule that enters the metabolic pathways we discussed, in which stage of metabolism if the greatest number for ATP moecules actually synthesized
e- transport/ oxidative phosphorylation (28 ATP)
Imagine a protein called "tosco". Synthesized by neuronal and muscle cells. However, in neurons it is freely floating around cytoplasm, but not in muscle cells, but it is always secreted. In both cases, the proteins appear identical. What could this mean
Muscle Bosco mRNA is likely to be larger than Nueronal Bosco mRNA
Imagine you had a big breakfast then you had candy right after. Candy has a lot of glucose , so after you eat the candy where would you predict most of the glucose in the candy would end up?
Being polymerized into glycogen
Patient has mutant protein called Miso. This protein normally has 152 amino acids. The mutant protein also has 152 amino acids however, the amino acids located at the positions 77 and 78 are diff from those present in the normal protein. The rest of the amino acids are all correct. What happened?
either two adjacent nonsense, or missense mutations in the mRNA codons corresponding to amino acids 77 and 78
both are possible
Primary level protein structure
A. A sequence (ala-try-..)
Secondary level Protein structure
alpha helix, or beta H-bonding
Tert level of protein structure
larger scale intra molecular folding interactions
(h-bonds, ionic bonds, van Der Waals etc)
contribute to 3d Structure
intermolecular folding interactions
has an SH -> can undergo REDOX rxns
under reducing it is SH SH independent of eachother
Under oxidizing res, disulfide bridge forms (test structure)
Consider the 2 alpha 2 beta structure of hemoglobin. what kinds of chemical interactions are holding the quaternary structure together
Weak IMF forces
Which structure of the protein frequently uses weak and covalent bonds
How many levels of protein structure involve covalent bonds
3 (Prim, sec, tert)
People w miso have an extra aa in transmembrane domain of miso. Structure in miso is normal so what happened?
Insertion of 3 nucleotides during replication
In nucleic acid synthesis, when a nucleotide is covalently attached to a growing chain, the new nucleotide is added to which end of the growing chain?
the 3' end
Which of the following processes does not require energy to proceed? (replication, transcription, translation, synthesis of phospholipids)?
Which process would an error have the most potential for long term error?
You mix all the required elements for translation, charged tRNA with amino acids, ribosomal subunits, and mRNA etc., in a test tube. Given that the mRNA has the following sequence, what is/are the polypeptide(s) that could be produced (ignore the lack of start and stop codons)
5' - AGCAGCAGCAGCAGCAGCAGC - 3'
multiple different ones
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'-ATTGCA-3', the mRNA synthesized following the template will be ________.
A heat-killed, phosphorescent (light-emitting) strain of bacteria is mixed with a living, non-phosphorescent strain. Further observations of the mixture show that some of the living cells are now phosphorescent. Which of the following observations would provide the best evidence that the ability to phosphoresce is a heritable trait?
d. phosphorescence in descendants of the living cells
It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information. Which of the following characteristics of DNA is responsible for this?
sequences of bases
In DNA replication in E. coli, the enzyme primase is used to attach a 5 to 10 base ribonucleotide strand complementary to the parental DNA strand. The RNA strand serves as a starting point for the DNA polymerase that replicates the DNA. If a mutation occurred in the primase gene, which of the following results would you expect?
c. Replication would not occur on either the leading or lagging strand
he genetic code is redundant. What is meant by this statement?
d. More than one codon can specify the addition of the same amino acid
In the structural organization of many eukaryotic genes, individual exons may be related to which of the following?
a. the sequence of the intron that immediately precedes each exon
b. the number of polypeptides making up the functional protein
c. the various domains of the polypeptide product
d. the number of start sites for transcription
he most commonly occurring mutation in people with cystic fibrosis is a deletion of the DNA sequences encoding a single codon. What is the result of this type of mutation?
c. A polypeptide missing an amino acid
The figure represents tRNA that recognizes and binds a particular amino acid (in this instance, phenylalanine). Which codon on the mRNA strand codes for this amino acid?
Which of the following types of mutation, resulting in an error in the mRNA just after the AUG start of translation, is likely to have the most serious effect on the polypeptide product?
a. a deletion of a codon
b. a deletion of two nucleotides
c. a substitution of the third nucleotide in an ACC codon
d. a substitution of the first nucleotide of a GGG codon
Which of the summary statements below describes the results of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
a. C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced
b. O2 is oxidized and H2O is reduced
c. CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized
d. O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate, ________.
a. two molecules of ATP are used, and two molecules of ATP are produced
b. two molecules of ATP are used, and four molecules of ATP are produced
c. four molecules of ATP are used, and two molecules of ATP are produced
d. two molecules of ATP are used, and six molecules of ATP are produced
During which of the following metabolic processes is most of the CO2 from the catabolism of glucose released?
b. electron transport
c. oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
d. the citric acid cycle
3' CCTAGAGAGTGAGTTTCCCACGCAGGTAGAAATATGTGCAC 5'
5' GGATCTCTCACTCAAAGGGTGCGTCCATCTTTATACACGTG 3'
Which of the strands will be the template strand for synthesizing an RNA that codes for a protein?
a. Top strand
b. Both strands could code for an RNA that can code for a protein
c. Bottom strand
d. Neither strand could code for an RNA that can code for a protein
To answer this question, first you need to write out the sequence of the RNA that will be synthesized from each of the two strands of DNA, keeping in mind that the newly synthesized RNA has to be synthesized antiparallel with its template strand of DNA.
The RNA that will be synthesized using the top strand as the template will be:
The RNA that will be synthesized using the bottom strand as the template will
be: 5' CACGUGUAUAAAGAUGGACGCACCCUUUGAGUGAGAGAUCC 3'
In order to initiate protein synthesis at the ribosomes, an mRNA must have a 5' AUG 3'. Only the RNA strand that uses the bottom strand of the DNA as the template has an AUG in it. Therefore, the bottom strand is the only one that can generate a RNA that can lead to synthesis of a protein.