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61 terms

Mantzke Biology 2nd sementer Freshman

Biology freshman 2nd semester
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Chromosome
structure made of DNA and associated proteins on which genes are located
chromatid
one of a pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome during meiosis or mitosis
cytokinesis
division of the cytophasm to form two separate cells
crossing over
the exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologous chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis source of genetic recombination
diploid
term used to indicate a cell containing two sets of chromosomes one set inherited from each parent
fertilization
the process by which haploid gametes join to form a diploid zygote
genetics
study of heredity
gene
section of a chromosome that codes for protein or RNA molecule
gamete
haploid cell that participates in fertiliazation by fusing with another haploid cell
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles
homologous chromosome
a member of a chromosome pair both of which are similar in shape, size and the genes they carry
haploid
having only one set of chromosomes
heredity
transmission of genetic traits from parent to off spring
homozygous
refers to an individual with two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
refers to an individual with two different alleles for a trait
incomplete dominace
condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of its two parents
mitosis
process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei each with the same number and kind of chromosomes
monohybrid cross
cross involving one pair of contrasting traits
multiple alleles
the existence of more than two alleles versions of the gene for a genetic trait
meiosis
process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes two successive dibisions that produce four cells gametes each with a chromosome number that has been reduced by half
oogenesis
process by which gametes are produced in female animals
phenotype
observable characteristics of an organism
Punnett square
diagram used by biologists to predict the probable outcome of a genetic cross
polygenic trait
characteristic of an organism that is influenced by several genes
sex linked trait
a trait that is determined by a gene found on the x chromosome
spermatogenesis
process by which gametes are produced in male animals
amoeba
a protist that moves using flexible cytoplasmic extensions
angiosperm
seed plant that produces reproductive structures in flowers and seed within a fruit
coccus
spherical shaped bacterium
bacillus
rod shaped bacterium
conjugation
temporary union of two organisms to exchange nuclear material
class
taxonomic category containing orders with common characteristics
family
taxonomic category containing genera with similar properties
fruit
structure that contains one or more seeds and develops from the ovary of the pistil of a flower
flower
reproductive structure of angiosperms produces pollen in the anthers of stamens and seeds in a fruit the mature ovary of a pistil
gametophyte
haploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternations of generations haploid individual that produces gametes
gymnosperm
seed plant that produces seeds that do not develop withing a fruit
hypha
slender filament that is part of the body of a multicelular fungus
kingdom
taxonomic category that contains phyla with similar characteristics
lichen
symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium
nonvascular plant
plant that does not have a vascular system
phylum
a taxonomic category containing classes with similar characteristics
pathogen
a disease causing agent
prokaryote
single celled organism without a nucleus bacterial cell
protist
a member of the kingdom Protista
species
group of organisms that look alike and are capable of producing fertile offspring in nature
sporophyte
diploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations diploid individual that produces spores
taxonomy
science of naming and classifying organisms
order
taxonomic category consisting of rfamilies with similar characteristics
virus
a strand of nucleic acid encased in a protein coat that can infect cells and replicate within them
arthropod
member of the phylum Arthropoda which includes invertebrate animals such as insects crustaceans and srachnids
carnivore
flesh eating organism
exoskeleton
hard external covering of some invertebrates
ectothermic
refering to an animal whose body temperature is determined by the temperature of the environment
herbivore
organism that eats only plants or algae
hermaphrodite
organism with both testes and ovaries
Malpighian tubele
slender fingerlike organ of excretion that opens into the gut of certain arthropods
omnivore
animal that eats both plants and animals
proglottid
rectangular body section of tapeworms
sessile
describes an organism that remains attached to a surfact for its entire life
radula
rasping tonguelike organ of mollusks uned in obtaining food