40 terms


What are the 2 modes of bone formation?
intramembranous bone formation

endochondral bone formation
Osteoclasts are derived from what precursor cells?
How do blood vessels entering the periosteum and endosteum penetrate the bone matrix?
Volkmann's canal
Name the 2 layers of the periosteum
fibrous layer

osteogenic layer
What are 2 important functions of periosteum?
blood supply

source of osteogenic cells
What is the name of the COLLAGEN fibers that attach periosteum to bone?
Sharpey's fibers
When an osteoblast becomes entrapped in a lacunae, it becomes?
an osteocyte
How do osteocytes communicate?
gap junctions
What is the name of the structures that house osteoclasts?
Howship's lacunae
What type of enzymes are involved in bone resorption?
lysosomal enzymes
What is the name of the first compact bone laid down?
primary bone
What system is characteristic of secondary bone?
Haversian system/osteon
What are interstitial lamellae?
lamellae found between osteons
What structures connect Haversian canals to the marrow cavity?
Volkmann's canals
What is the name of the lining of the marrow cavity, Volkmann's canal, and the Haversian canal?
What type of cells are located in the endosteum?
osteoprogenitor cells
What type of bone formation involves mesenchymal cells?
intramembranous bone formation
Give an example of a type of bone that develops via intramembranous bone formation
flat ones of the skull
What provides the template for bone during endochondral ossification?
hyaline cartilage
During endochondral ossification, hypertrophy at the midpoint of the shaft forms the?
primary ossification center
During endochondral bone formation, what event causes the transformation of chondrogenic cells to osteogenic cells?
vascularization of the perichondrium
New bone formed as result of osteoblast activity is called (endochondral bone formation)
subperiosteal bone collar
What 2 components make up the periosteal bud?
osteogenic cells

blood vessels
Name the 5 histologically distinct zones of the epiphyseal plate (begin with the epiphyseal side of the plate)
zone of reserve cartilage

zone of proliferation

zone of cell maturation and hypertrophy

zone of calcifying cartilage

zone of provisional ossification
Name the zone: cartilage with small, randomly arranged inactive chondrocytes
zone of reserve cartilage
Name the zone: rapid mitotic division giving rise to rows of cartilage cells
zone of cell proliferation
Name the zone: chondrocytes are greatly enlarged and contain glycogen and the cartilage matrix between neighboring cells becomes thin
zone of cell maturation and hypertrophy
Name the zone: lacunae confluent and the remnants of interlacunar matrices become calcified, causing chondrocytic death
zone of calcifying cartilage
Name the zone: bone is beginning to elaborated upon the calcified cartilage, and osteolytic activity begins to resorb the calcified bone-calcified cartilage complex
zone of provisional ossification
Calcified cartilage stains?
Calcified bone stains?
What is another name for uncalcified bone matrix?
What 2 types of connective tissue make up a callus in the early stages?

Lack of calcium intake or absorption in children results in what disease?
Lack of calcium intake or absorption in adults leads to what disease?
What vitamin accelerates the ossification of the epiphyseal plates?
vitamin A
Parathyroid hormone acts on which bone cells?
Which bone cells have calcitonin receptors?
What hormone stimulates epiphyseal cartilage growth?
growth hormone (pituitary)
Excess of sex hormones leads to?
small stature