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What are the 2 modes of bone formation?

intramembranous bone formation

endochondral bone formation

Osteoclasts are derived from what precursor cells?


How do blood vessels entering the periosteum and endosteum penetrate the bone matrix?

Volkmann's canal

Name the 2 layers of the periosteum

fibrous layer

osteogenic layer

What are 2 important functions of periosteum?

blood supply

source of osteogenic cells

What is the name of the COLLAGEN fibers that attach periosteum to bone?

Sharpey's fibers

When an osteoblast becomes entrapped in a lacunae, it becomes?

an osteocyte

How do osteocytes communicate?

gap junctions

What is the name of the structures that house osteoclasts?

Howship's lacunae

What type of enzymes are involved in bone resorption?

lysosomal enzymes

What is the name of the first compact bone laid down?

primary bone

What system is characteristic of secondary bone?

Haversian system/osteon

What are interstitial lamellae?

lamellae found between osteons

What structures connect Haversian canals to the marrow cavity?

Volkmann's canals

What is the name of the lining of the marrow cavity, Volkmann's canal, and the Haversian canal?


What type of cells are located in the endosteum?

osteoprogenitor cells

What type of bone formation involves mesenchymal cells?

intramembranous bone formation

Give an example of a type of bone that develops via intramembranous bone formation

flat ones of the skull

What provides the template for bone during endochondral ossification?

hyaline cartilage

During endochondral ossification, hypertrophy at the midpoint of the shaft forms the?

primary ossification center

During endochondral bone formation, what event causes the transformation of chondrogenic cells to osteogenic cells?

vascularization of the perichondrium

New bone formed as result of osteoblast activity is called (endochondral bone formation)

subperiosteal bone collar

What 2 components make up the periosteal bud?

osteogenic cells

blood vessels

Name the 5 histologically distinct zones of the epiphyseal plate (begin with the epiphyseal side of the plate)

zone of reserve cartilage

zone of proliferation

zone of cell maturation and hypertrophy

zone of calcifying cartilage

zone of provisional ossification

Name the zone: cartilage with small, randomly arranged inactive chondrocytes

zone of reserve cartilage

Name the zone: rapid mitotic division giving rise to rows of cartilage cells

zone of cell proliferation

Name the zone: chondrocytes are greatly enlarged and contain glycogen and the cartilage matrix between neighboring cells becomes thin

zone of cell maturation and hypertrophy

Name the zone: lacunae confluent and the remnants of interlacunar matrices become calcified, causing chondrocytic death

zone of calcifying cartilage

Name the zone: bone is beginning to elaborated upon the calcified cartilage, and osteolytic activity begins to resorb the calcified bone-calcified cartilage complex

zone of provisional ossification

Calcified cartilage stains?


Calcified bone stains?


What is another name for uncalcified bone matrix?


What 2 types of connective tissue make up a callus in the early stages?



Lack of calcium intake or absorption in children results in what disease?


Lack of calcium intake or absorption in adults leads to what disease?


What vitamin accelerates the ossification of the epiphyseal plates?

vitamin A

Parathyroid hormone acts on which bone cells?


Which bone cells have calcitonin receptors?


What hormone stimulates epiphyseal cartilage growth?

growth hormone (pituitary)

Excess of sex hormones leads to?

small stature

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