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Terms in this set (21)
-Energy needed to get a reaction started
-most chemical reactions are too slow or their activation energy is too high
The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs.
An enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides. Amylase is secreted by salivary glands and by the pancreas.
An enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
-processes that change, or transform, one set of chemicals into another
-reactants -> products
-change in chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
shape of protein(enzyme) changes;active site no longer fits the substrate. can be caused by change in temperature, pH, inhibitors, and vitamins and minerals
-provide a place where reactants can be brought together to react
-cell reactions can occur at normal temperatures
-unchanged after chemical reaction
-may be affected by any variable that influences chemical reactions
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction; the substrates
the reactants in a enzyme-substrate complex
What happens to chemical bonds during chemical reactions?
they change and join atoms in compunds
What relationship exists between an enzyme and a catalyst?
in living things, cells have biological catalysts called enzymes
How does an enzyme affect a chemical reaction?
an enzyme molecule will catalyze only one chemical reaction. An enzyme lowers activation energy
What is the structure of an enzyme? How does its structure affect its activity?
-active site that is specifically shaped so the substrate(s) fit into the active site and provide a place to react
What is meant by the optimum pH and temperature of an enzyme?
-enzymes work best at specific temperatures and pHs
-each enzyme is specific for a particular chemical reaction, this is called specificity
What are some factors that may influence enzyme activity?
inhibitors: pH, temperature, vitamins and minerals
Why are enzymes important to living things?
-because they allow reactions to occur at body temperature
-speed up chemical reactions that would be too slow to sustain life
what happens to energy in chemical reactions
energy is released or absorbed when chemical bonds are broken and reformed
what are the patterns in enzyme names?
-enzymes usually end with the suffix case -ase and are derived from the name of the substrate;
-maltose is split into two glucose molecules by maltase
-proteins are broken down by proteases
-lipids are broken down by lipases
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