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Terms in this set (252)
Which structure receives blood from the systemic circuit?
The visceral pericardium is also called the_______________?
Which is the deepest and intermost layer of the heart wall?
The right ventricle________________?
has thinner muscular walls than the left does
The left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circuit through the___________?
which vessel gives rise to a circumflex branch and an anterior interventricular branch?
left coronary artery
Which of the following is a major component of the conduction system located in the interventricular septum, and extends toward the apex of the heart?
blood exiting the left ventricle must pass through the________valve?
Arteries transport blood away from the heart. T OR F?
The outermost layer of a blood vessel, which is very thick and composed chiefly of collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers, is the______________?
Which vessels collect blood from capillaries?
Which of the following is a branch of the aortic arch?
in the leg, the femoral artery becomes the________________?
The hepatic portal vein carries blood_________________?
high in nutrients
In fetal circulation, blood may bypass the pulmonary circuit by passing from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta through the short vessel known as the_____________?
Because the walls of veins are relatively thick and strong, they retain their circular shape in histological sections?
What is a primary function of the lymphatic system?
to produce, maintain and distribute lymphocytes
Lipids absorbed in the digestive tract enter..............in the intestinal wall.
The right lymphatic duct________________?
carries lymph originating in tissues superior to the diaphragm on the right side of the body
Which cell population primarily functions in providing antibody-mediated or humoral immunity?
What is described as large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx?
Lymphoid nodules in the walls of the small intestine are called________________?
The respiratory epithelium consists of which tissue type?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Which systems share the pharynx?
digestive and respiratory
where are the openings of the auditory tubes located?
Which of the following structure is C-shaped?
The right primary bronchus divides into how many secondary bronchi?
Which are the thinnest and most delicate branches of the bronchial tree?
The upper respiratory system consists of the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and____________?
The largest laryngeal cartilage is the ______________ cartilage, commonly called the adams apple.
The walls of the primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi contain progressively lesser amount of___________?
The correct order of the digestive tube layers, from lumen outward is___________?
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The largest salivary gland is what?
Which portion of the stomach is connected to the duodenum?
The stomach mucosa contains numerous shallow depressions called?
Which of the following increases the surface area for digestion and absorption in the mucosa of the small intestine?
The middle subdivision of the small intestine is the:
What is described as a series of pouches that are formed by the colon wall?
The right colic flexure is also known as what?
Structures that unite to form the common bile duct include
cystic duct, common hepatic duct
The basic functional unit of the liver is_______________?
The portal triad consists of which of the following?
hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery proper, common bile duct
The ventral mesentary layer thats located between the stomach and liver is the:
The lining of the small intestine bears a series of transverse folds called_______________, which are permanent features of the intestinal lining.
the muscularis externa of the large intestine differs from that of the other intestinal regions because the longitudinal layer has been reduced to the muscular bands of the_________________?
Which of the following are the blood vessels at the boundary of the cortex and medulla of the kidney?
arcuate artery and vein
the kindeys are located where?
Which is the last part of the renal tube?
distal convoluted tubule
The glomerulus is made up of many____________?
The glomerular capsule and the glomerulus makeup the___________?
The three layers of the muscularis layer of the urinary bladder are collectively known as what?
The entry point of the renal artery and the exit for the renal vein and ureter is the _______________?
The glomerular epithelium consists of large cells with complex processes or feet that wrap around the glomerular capillaries. ___________________?
The triangular area bonded by the urethral openings and the entrance to the urethra constitutes the.................?
The inner mucosa of each ureter is lined by....................?
contraction of the cremaster muscle...................?
moves the testis closer to the body cavity
The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the...................?
The female gonads are the.......................?
The thickened, cord-like connection of the uterus to the anterior pelvic wall is the.............?
The muscular layer of the uterus is the ...............?
Primarily cardiac muscle and is supported by the fibrous skeleton of the heart
Serous membrane lining
Provides frictionless surface for blood
Continuous with blood vessel lining
orientation of heart
Located in mediastinum, posterior to sternum
apex points towards left hip
Pumps blood to next chamber
Pumps blood to tissues
Expandable anterior space openings off of atrium
Fills with increased blood return to heart
Thin muscular wall between atria
Fossa Ovalis: depression on right atria
Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Pumped from right side of the heart
Returns oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart
Carries oxygenated blood to body tissues
Pumped from left side of the heart
Returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart.
Nodal cells depolarize around 70-100 beats/min
Sets sinus rhythm
Wave of depolarization spreads across atrial walls and internodal pathways
Delay of depolarization
Fewer gap junctions
Allows complete atrial contraction before ventricles contract
fibrous skeleton of the heart
Interwoven connective tissue strands intermingled within myocardium
Prevent depolarization from reaching ventricular muscle
Low resistance in fibers
Right bundle branch gives off moderator band
Stimulates papillary muscle to contract before ventricle
Stimulates ventricular contraction beginning at apex
Allows sympathetic output from T1-T5 via sympathetic chain
Cardiac nerve plexus innervates
Allows parasympathetic output via vagus nerve
Innervates nodes only
Carry blood AWAY from the heart
Usually carry oxygenated blood
Carry blood TOWARDS the heart
Usually carries deoxygenated blood
Exchange between tissues and blood
Simple squamous epithelia
Internal elastic membrane: in arteries only
Concentric smooth muscles
Allow for vasoconstriction and vasodilation
External elastic membrane: in arteries only
Outer connective tissue layer
Withstand the high systolic blood pressure
Tunica media contains highest proportion
Large internal diameter
Large 0.5-1 inch in diameter
Major vessels near heart: aorta, pulmonary trunk, common carotids, brachiocephalic trunk
Proportionally thicker tunica media
Active in vasoconstriction: autonomic control
Controls distribution of blood
Regional vessels: brachial, femoral, mesenteric arteries
Much smaller non-named vessels
Ill-defined tunica externa
Significant muscular component
Vasoconstricts under autonomic control
Most common, abundant cell to cell junctions
Squamous epithelial cells have fenestra (pores)
Found where active absorption/filtration occur
Small intestine, choroid plexus, endocrine gland, kidneys
Basal lamina thinner or absent
Found where larger substances enter or leave the body
Liver, bone marrow, suprarenal glands
Arteriole supply capillary bed
Regulates flow into true capillaries
Outflow vessel to venules
Allows direct arteriole to venule flow if sphincters are closed
No tunica externa
Scant tunica media
Smallest have only tunica interna
medium sized veins
Thin tunica media
Tunica externa thickens with larger veins
Appear collapsed, irregular under microscope
Comparable to elastic arteries in size and location
venules and small blood vessels
eventually dump into the inferior vena cava that leads back to the heart
percent of blood in veins
More abundant and slower flow
What percent of blood?
In the significant blood loss
20% of total blood can be used from the capillaries for the heart or brain
Left common carotid
Head-identify arterial branches
External carotid artery
Internal carotid artery
Arms-identify arterial branches
Leg-identify arterial branches
abdominal -identify arterial branches
circle of willis
Series of arterial anastomoses at base of the brain
Ensures vital blood supply
Internal carotid arteries
Vertebral arteries (basilar artery)
Hepatic portal system
Transports absorbed nutrients directly from intestines
To liver for processing
hepatic portal vein
Receives blood from intestinal capillary beds
Delivers to liver
Carries deoxygenated blood
Oxygenated blood delivered by hepatic artery
Superior mesenteric vein
Placenta provides fetus
Fetal pulmonary system can be bypassed
Hepatic storage can be bypassed
Carries deoxygenated blood to placenta
Carries oxygenated blood from placenta
Pulmonary systems only receives
only receives 10% of oxygenated blood derived from placenta
Remaining 90% received by systemic system
Changes at birth
Obsolete vessels fibrose
Spasm and collapses and replaced with fibrous CT
umbilical vessels severed
Umbilical arteries become lateral umbilical ligaments
Umbilical veins become ligamentum teres
Ductus venosus become ligamentum venosum
infant takes first breath
Fluid in airways clear, decreasing resistance to pulmonary blood flow
Pulmonary venous returns and increases left atrial pressure forming fossa ovale
Ductus arteriosus becomes ligamentum arteriosum
Identify the functions of the lymphatic system
Collect interstitial fluid and return to blood
Support development and activity of immune cells
Serves as route of travel for immune system cells
Passively reabsorbed leaked blood serum
primary lymphoid tissue
thymus, the site where progenitor cells from the marrow differentiate into mature thymus-derived (T) cells
secondary lymphoid tissue
sites where lymphocytes interact with each other and nonlymphoid cells to generate immune responses to antigens.
Allow interstitial fluid to enter passively
Simple squamous epithelium
No basal lamina
Collagen fibers anchor into surrounding tissue
Present wherever vascular capillary beds are
Similar to veins
Same three layer in walls
Lymph flow created the by same mechanisms as venous blood flow
lumbar trunks drains what?
interstitial trunks drain what?
Only unpaired trunk
Bronchomediastinal drains what?
subclavian trunk drains what?
drains upper extremities
jugular trunk drains what?
head and neck
Right lymphatic duct drains what?
Drains right jugular, subclavian, and bronchomediastinal trunks
Begins in superior abdomen as cisterna chyli
Drains left jugular, subclavian, and bronchomediastinal trunks
Both lumbar trunks
Empties into venous system
At confluence of internal jugular vein and subclavian vein
Differentiate in thymus
80% of circulating lymphocytes
cytotoxic killer T cells
Direct cell-to-cell destruction of pathogen/foreign cell
helper T cells
Coordinates all immune responses
regulatory T cells
Termination of immune response
memory T cells
Remain inactive in current infection, attack during second infections
Differentiate in bone marrow
10-15% circulating lymphocytes
Forms memory B cells
Natural killer cells
Differentiate in bone marrow
5-10% circulating lymphocytes
Provide immune surveillance
Dense, unencapsulated collection of lymphocytes
Contain germinal center
Pale central area of nodule
Actively dividing B cells
Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue
Diffuse collection of lymphoid nodules located in mucous membrane of digestive tract and respiratory tract
A MALT structure
Aggregated Lymphoid nodules (peyer's patch)
Clusters of lymphoid nodules in walls of intestines
Increase in size along tract
trabeculae of lymphnode
Internal extensions of capsules
afferent lymphatic vessels
Carry lymph through convex side
Network of macrophages, lymphocytes, and reticular fibers
Aggregated B cells
T cells dominate
medulla of lymphnode
Macrophages and activated B cells
efferent lymphatic vessels
Exit at indented hilum
Flow of lymph
Each node removes 99% of arriving pathogens
Lymph flows through multiple nodes before return to the blood
Locations of lymphnodes
Surrounding pulmonary airways
Near thoracic duct
structure of a lymphnode
Two lobes further subdivided into lobules by septae
T cells multiple in cortex
T cells differentiate and mature after migrating to medulla
function of a lymphnode
T lymphocyte maturation
Blood thymus barrier
Prevents undesired activation of T cells against self antigens
function of spleen
Clears pathogens from blood
Site of lymphocyte proliferation
Destroys old or damaged erythrocytes
Erythrocyte production in fetus
white pulp of spleen
Lymphocytes and macrophages on reticular fibers
Venous sinuses and erythrocytes in stroma
Splenic artery branches within spleen as trabecular arteries
Delivers blood first to white pulp, then red.
Make mucous which traps particles because it is sticky and moist
Cilia sweep contaminated mucus towards digestive tract
Increase contact with mucus lined walls
roof of respiratory system
Contains olfactory epithelium
Supplement mucus production
three divisions of the pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Contains opening of auditory tube and pharyngeal tonsil
Contains palatine and lingual tonsils
Lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Lined by stratified squamous epithelium
Cartilages of airway
-Completely surrounds airway
Folds over to protect larynx during swallowing
Bounded by vestibular folds
Control opening of glottis
Uses for sound production
15-20 C shaped partial circles of hyaline cartilage
Alters diameter of trachea
Elastic connective tissue binds rings together
1st two branches off trachea, outside of lungs
Right bronchus is shorter, wider and more vertical
secondary bronchi (lobar branch)
Primary branches of bronchi in the lungs
Each serves a single pulmonary lobe
Tertiary bronchi (segmental bronchi)
Each serves a single bronchopulmonary segment
Identify and describe the anatomy surrounding the terminal gas exchange portion of the respiratory tract,
Alveolar duct: terminal branch of a respiratory bronchiole
Alveolar sac: space at the end of the alveolar duct
Alveoli: spherical spaces
Type I pneumocyte:
simple squamous cell, forms walls
Type II pneumocyte (surfactant cell):
about 20 ml of serous fluid, adheres lung to thoracic wall
Lubricates movement of lung
Helps lungs move inside body cavity frictionlessly without causing damage
what does the diaphragm do?
what do the external intercostals do?
Accessory muscles for the respiratory system
Respiratory rhythmicity center
Sets rate and depth of ventilation
Ventral respiratory group
Dorsal respiratory group
Modifies output of medulla centers
Taking in food
mechanical breakdown (propulsion)
Physical churning and degradation of foodstuffs
Takes place in duodenum
Physical churning and degradation of foodstuffs
Takes place in duodenum
Transport of chemical building blocks and water through digestive tube
Takes place in small intestine
Excretion and compaction
Folds of mucosa increase absorption surface and allow expansion of organ
4 layers of digestive tube
mucosa, plicae, Glandular epithelium over loose CT, Epithelium
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Oral cavity to esophagus and anal canal
Underlying areolar CT
Contains blood vessels and lymphoid nodules
Smooth muscle layer
Alters shape of plicae
Dense irregular CT
Abundant elastic fibers
2 layers of smooth muscle
Circumferential inner layer
Longitudinal outer layer
Intermediate outer layer
To control flow
Coordinated waves of contraction
Provide propulsion of food mass
Sporadic contraction of circular layer
Affects mixing of gut contents
Myofibrils not rigidly aligned
Can stretch and adapt to new length
Connected by many gap junctions
Can be stimulated by
Respiratory gas levels
Stretching or irritation
Most attach GI tract to posterior body wall
Most of abdominal GI tract is intraabdominal
Some organs are retroperitoneal
red margin of mouth
Deep pigmented region where oral mucosa begins
muscular walls of mouth
Signals presence of food near pharynx
in soft pallete
Interwoven bundles of skeletal muscle
changes shape of tongue
changes position of tongue
limits posterior movement
salivary gland role
Amylase (carb digestion)
Ducts open lateral to second upper molar
Duct opens at base of lingual frenulum
Open via multiple ducts
crown of tooth
Covered in enamel
Cells that produce it die when tooth erupts
Acellular bone like material
Dentin producing cells line pulp cavity
buccal phase of deglutition
Tongue forces food posteriorly into oropharynx
pharyngeal phase of deglutition
Tongue blocks oral cavity
Soft palate rise to block nasopharynx
esophageal phase of deglutition
Upper esophageal sphincter relaxes
Peristalsis propels food inferiorly
Gastroesophageal sphincter opens
Pyloric antrum: farthest from sphincter
Pyloric canal: between antrum and sphincter
Lined by goblet cells
Branch into gastric glands at base
-Mucous neck cells
Acidic lubricating mucus
Needed for B12 absorption
Activated in to pepsin
Secrete chemical messengers
Mostly retroperitoneal, forms C shape around the head of pancreas
Receives bile from liver and gallbladder, and digestive enzymes from pancreas
Duodenal papilla: small projection in medial wall of duodenum, hepatic and pancreatic secretion entire through it
Duodenal ampulla: sac where common bile duct and pancreatic duct meet
About 8 feet long
Begins at flexure where duodenum emerges from retroperitoneum, performs bulk of chemical breakdown and absorption
About 12 feet long
Minimal absorption: some bile salts, ends at large intestines
Both segments are fully intraperitoneal
most digestion/absorption completed by mid-jejunum
Also Brunner's glands or duodenal glands
Only in duodenum
Secrete alkaline mucus
Goblet cells and aggregated lymphoid follicles increase
Concentration of roughage and bacteria increase in non-absorbed waste
functions of large intestines
Vitamin B and K absorption
Storage and compaction of feces
Expanded retroperitoneal portion of large intestines
Distal to ileocecal valve:sphincter controlling flow from small to large intestines
Vermiform appendix: hangs off posterolateral cecum, about 3 in.
-Ascending colon: Retroperitoneal, up right side, ends at right colic (hepatic) flexure
-Transverse colon: Intraperitoneal, across upper abdomen, suspended by transverse mesocolon, ends at left colic (splenic) flexure
-Descending colon: Retroperitoneal, down left side
-Sigmoid colon: Intraperitoneal, in lower left quadrant, suspended by sigmoid mesocolon
-Pierces muscular pelvic floor, anterior to sacrum
-Anal columns: longitudinal mucosal folds, connected distally by transverse folds
-Anal canal: last inch of rectum, epithelium becomes stratified squamous (greater abrasion from dehydrated feces)
sphincters gaurd anus
Internal anal sphincter: thickening of muscularis externa
External anal sphincter: skeletal muscle of pelvic floor
entry/exit point (hilum) on inferior surface
Entering: hepatic artery proper, hepatic portal vein
Exiting: common hepatic duct
venous drainage of liver, drain directly into inferior vena cava
Hexagonal prism shape
Separated by CT interlobular septa
Central vein: venous outflow in center
Hepatocytes: radiate in chords from central vein
Hepatic artery proper
Hepatic portal vein
Receive blood from branches of the hepatic artery proper and hepatic portal vein
Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells):
Reside in sinusoids
thin walled muscular sac, about 4 inches long, hangs from ventral surface of liver, stores and concentrates bile
Cystic duct: drainage into biliary tree, drains into common bile duct
location of pancreas
Head: right side, surrounded by duodenum
Body: extends behind stomach
Tail: tapered left end near spleen
Produces majority of digestive enzymes: secretes nutrition-related hormones as well
main pancreatic duct
Carries pancreatic juice
Joins common bile duct at duodenal ampulla
Release regulated by hepatopancreatic sphincter
accessory pancreatic duct
Remnant of pancreatic development may persist
Secretes into duodenum proximal to main duct
Clustered exocrine enzyme-producing cells
Zymogen granules: dark staining enzyme-bearing vesicles
components of pancreatic juice
Inactive proteases: protects pancreas from self-digestion, activated in duodenum by brush border enzymes
Bicarbonate: aids in neutralizing stomach acid
processes of urinary system
Elimination: organic wastes, especially nitrogenous wastes of protein breakdown, toxic substances
Regulation: water, electrolytes, and pH
function of urinary system
Regulate and maintain blood composition
proximal convoluted tube
Exits tubular pole of glomerulus
Opposite vascular pole
Lumen continuous with glomerular capsular space
Simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli
Winds through cortex
distal convoluted tube
Begins at superficial end of Loop of Henle
Simple cuboidal epithelium without microvilli
Collects urine from multiple collecting ducts
Empty into minor calyx at renal papilla
Functionally part of the nephron
Anatomically part of many nephron
Receives urine from many nephrons
Distal end of distal convoluted tubule
Mix of cells from DCT and two collecting duct cell types
85% of nephrons
Renal corpuscle, PCT and DCT in superficial cortex
Short loop of Henle: only extends toward or barely into medulla
15% of nephrons
Renal corpuscle, PCT and DCT near corticomedullary boundary
Long loop of Henle:
cortical radiate veins
Receive outflow of peritubular capillaries and vasa recta
No segmental veins
Drains into inferior vena cava
Begins at renal hilum
Descends in retroperitoneal space(1ft)
Enter urinary bladder inferolaterally
Inner transitional epithelium
Inner longitudinal, outer circular layer
Contains underlying lamina propria
Rugae allows for expansion
Contains trigone at base without rugae
Smooth muscle layer
Two longitudinal layers
Intermediate circular layer
Parietal peritoneum drapes over superior surface
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