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History of the Theatre
Terms in this set (105)
The dithyramb was
a long hymn, sung and danced by a group of fifty men
three tragedies and a satyr play, a set of plays by the same dramatist & the feature of three days of the festival
What are the six elements of theatre Aristotle described in The Poetics?
Plot, Character, Thought, Music, Spectacle & Diction
A play noted for its superb plot construction, skillful introduction of characters, swift build to the climax, beautiful poetry, use of a third actor, and a fifteen person chorus was probably written by
Old Comedy introduced episodes into the structure of the play that called for a debate between the opposing forces of argument. Such an episode is called the
The crane that lifted an actor down from "heaven" was called a/an
New Comedies are different from Old Comedies in that they
are not political satire, use the chorus less, are more realistic & are about everyday life
Because of the style of his Latin and the moral tone of his plays, the following playwright's work was used as a literary model in medieval convents and monasteries and in Renaissance schools.
The "scaena frons"
the facade of the scaena, or stage house; was elaborate and ornate with statuary, columns, recesses, and three to five entrances
The Romans used scenic curtains called the
"auleum" and the "siparium"
The "naumachiae" were
sea battles sometimes staged in flooded arenas
required a principal dancer, an assistant, a chorus, and a musical accompanist; can be compared to ballet; has a chorus who chanted the narrative and explained the action; was supported by emperors and wealthy individuals
The idea that spectators surrender themselves to a dramatic situation corresponding to some powerful feeling that they themselves possess is called
The main character in "no" who wears a mask is
In "bunraku" the puppets are manipulated by how many people?
What was the term for an extended form of musical passage that was often call and response?
What was the term for plays written in local languages such as Italian, French, Spanish, or English?
The basic spacial elements used to stage liturgical dramas within the church were
the mansion and the platea
were written in the vernacular and performed outside; appealed to large audiences and popular tastes; sometimes included anachronism, included comedic scenes
Theatrical pieces staged between the courses of a banquet in a banqueting hall were called
In commedia, when Capitano got entangled with his sword so that it emerged from between his legs as a ludicrous phallic symbol, he was performing a
The three areas of the audience seating in an opera house were called the
pit, boxes, and galleries
This system, introduced by Aleotti, allowed a new set of wings and shutters to be revealed immediately to the audience
The neoclassical idea that characters should behave in certain ways is called
The neoclassical idea that all drama should be "true to life" is called
A play with a subplot violates the unity of
The invention of the Gutenberg press inhibited the spread of literature from the past and humanism.
Which of these common aspects of Elizabethan drama adhered to neoclassical rules?
none of the above
Elizabethan drama changed locale between scenes by
using "spoken decor"
The two companies that held a duopoly on theatre production were
Lord Chamberlain's Men & Admiral's Men
Elizabethan theatre companies were organized under a sharing plan, which included
shareholders, hirelings, and apprentices
Shakespeare was most closely affiliated with the Admiral's Men as both a playwright and actor
Audiences at public theatre were in the pit (or yard) standing around the stage; in the boxes, which were divided areas on the first tier, sometimes called the lords' rooms because they were frequented by wealthy people; or the galleries, or the higher tiers of boxes that were undivided.
Renaissance theatre arrived later in France than other countries in Europe because
France experienced a civil war between Catholics and Protestants
The first permanent theatre in France (and maybe all of Europe after the fall of Rome) was the
Hotel de Bourgogne
One form that emerged due to Catherine de Medici's tastes during the 16th Century in France was
court entertainments such as festivals, court spectacles, and triumphal parades
This author of The Cid faced judgement from the French Academy and Cardinal Richelieu
The playwright incorporated neoclassical ideas better than any other French playwright of the period and had an extraordinary ability to create dramatic tension through concentration, characterization, and compressing dramatic action
A play written in rhyming couplets, in neoclassical form, with witty and comic dialogue and with characters resembling those in commedia dell'arte was probably written by
The play Tartuffe caused a controversy because
None of the above.
Ballets d'entrees were
a form of ballet that became popular at the court of Louis XIV; so technically elementary that the king himself took part in many of them; had many characters that entered the stage--hence the name
The Hotel de Bourgogne
was a long and narrow building with a platform stage at one end; had a parterre for standing spectators, had loges and undivided galleries around the side and back walls; had Paradis along the side walls
This theatre was erected by Cardinal Richelieu, was the first proscenium arch theatre in France, and had Italianate scene shifting imagery
This theatre housed the French national theatre and had a horseshoe shaped construction
In 1673 there were five government supported companies in Paris:
the Opera, the Italian commedia dell'arte troupe, the Hotel de Bourgogne company, the Theatre du Marais company, and the troupe led by Moliere
The Comedie-Francaise was organized under the sharing plan in which shares in the company were granted to its leading members, and those who were responsible for the company policy, including the selection of plays. These people were called
In the last half of the 17th century, many of the leading performers were associated with ________, who was a superb comic performer himself.
The finest tragic French actor of the late 17th century, noted for his less stilted, more natural acting style was
Actress Armande Bejart was known for
her training by and marriage to Moliere; her lively and charming stage manner, and excellent singing and dancing; the many roles she originated in Moliere's plays
Restoration theatre refers to theatre during
the reign of Charles II and James II; 1660-1700; the reign of William & Mary
This kind of drama was short versions of full-length plays, usually comedies, that were performed while theatre was outlawed during the Commonwealth
William Davenant, who had been a court playwright before the closing of the theatre, as able to circumvent the ordinances against theatre by
calling them musical entertainments; staging them in his home
Which of the following happened when theatrical activity resumed during the Restoration
This playwright and theatre producer worked with Inigo Jones on court masques, became poet laureate, and wrote the first English opera
This form of drama was popular between 1600 and 1675, dealt with extraordinary characters who undertook extraordinary deeds, and contained themes of love and honor reminiscent of the dramas of the Spanish golden age and the French neoclassical era
Aphra Behn is best known for her
plays of intrigue
This form of drama was the most popular in this period, and is characterized by the way it pokes fun at the fashions and foibles of the upper class with witty exchanges, repartee, and sexually suggestive references
comedies of manners
The three "female wits" were
Mary Pix, Catherine Trotter, and Delariviere Manley
In which ways did Jeremy Collier's A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage change Restoration theatre?
the sexual content of plays was toned down; morality was stressed
Nell Gwynn was known for her
singing and dancing; breeches roles; affair with Charles II
Restoration actors worked under
a contract system
How did playwrights make money for their plays during the Restoration?
none of the above
Restoration costuming was
mostly contemporary clothing
Thomas Killigrew and William Wycherley had the two licenses from Charles II to produce theatre
Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes is considered the first English opera and the first production in which actresses appeared onstage
Aphra Behn's plays were exceptional for their licentciousness, a trait not seen in many Restoration comedies
Financial success was possible for actresses, but they were often seen as no better than prostitutes and were frequently coerced into sexual liaisons with other company members or with wealthy audience members
One way that companies got around the 1737 Licensing Act was to say that they were presenting "tragedy, comedy, opera, play, farce, or other entertainment for the stage for gain, hire, or reward"
This type of drama is characterized by a rejection of the neoclassical requirement of royal protagonists and by plots focused on bourgeois family concerns that rewarded the virtuous and punished the wicked
middle class tragedy
The idea that the audience views a play through an invisible wall and that audience and performer should not acknowledge each other's presence is called
the "fourth wall"
This type of drama is characterized by having no sung dialogue but spoken dialogue alternated with songs set to popular contemporary melodies, characters drawn from the middle and lower classes, and satirical humor poking fun at contemporary issues
Oliver Goldsmith attacked the prevalent form of the 18th century comedy, calling instead for a form that would make fun of social conventions. He called this new form
This type of drama, a precursor to the 19th century melodrama, rejected dramatic rules and often had radical subject matter and style
storm & stress
German theatre of the late 1600s and early 1700s consisted mostly of
foreign performances of opera and dance at court; educational presentations by the Jesuits; slapstick featuring the character Hanswurst
In the 18th century, Drury Lane and the Covent Garden theatre in England
were the only two theatre able to present drama according to the Licensing Act
By the end of the 18th Century theatre buildings in Europe
followed basic Italian architecture; became larger; removed audiences from the stage; had benches in the pit
The American Company
faced religious opposition; toured constantly until the Revolutionary War; featured actress Anne Hallam
Costuming throughout most of the 18th Century focused mainly on
showing performers off to their best advantage
This popular performer was known for his/her performance of Shylock as a tragic character in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, and more lifelike acting, membership at Drury Lane, and writing plays
An evening's offering by both English and French companies might include
full length plays; entertainment between acts; afterpieces
Wars during the 18th Century were predominantly fought for religious reasons, marking change in history
Burletta was any three act play with five or more songs per act
Continental theatre abandoned Torelli's pole and chariot system in the 18th Century
The Comedie-Francaise was organized democratically; the company members voted on such issues as the bill
Because he oversaw the entire production process, David Garrick is often described as an early director
The following technological innovations transformed transportation and communications in the 19th Century
the railroad; the telegraph; the telephone; the incandescent lamp
Longer runs of shows and splintered audiences demanding theatre that spoke to their own needs was the result of
the concentration of urban populations
Because of its new complexity, theatre began to need
Which of the following was/were characteristics of a minstrel show?
caricatured performances and dialect jokes; blackface makeup; men sitting in a semi-circle including Tambo and Bones; singing, dancing, and skits
This riot happened in the Comedie-Francaise when a romantic play broke the rules of neoclassicism.
This, the most violent of the 19th century riots, happened when a British actor appeared at a New York theatre for the working class
Astor Place Riot
This newfound form of drama emphasized careful cause and effect development and often revolved around a secret known to the audience but not to the characters
well made play
Actors such as Edmund Kean, Edwin Forrest, Francois Joseph Talma, Sarah Bernhardt, and Benoit-Constant Coquelin were romantic stars noted for their
emotional outbursts; strong physical gestures; vocal points; reliance on inspiration
The dignified, studious English actor who thoroughly researched and rehearsed each role was a pioneer in stage realism, introducing a momentary pause during the delivery of his lines to give the impression that he was thinking. He was also involved in the Astor Place riot.
William Charles Macready
was one of the leading Shakespearean actors of the 19th century; left the United States due to racial prejudice; earned a reputation as one of the finest tragedians in England; toured Europe for three decades, appearing before royalty.
Francois DelSarte's theory and exercises for acting such as reestablished gestures and body movements and vocal inflections, demonstrate
an early attempt at a scientific approach to acting, consistent with the scientific spirit of the age
As an actress and manager, this woman instituted major innovations as proprietor of the Olympic Theatre where she presented light entertainment with a degree of care usually reserved for the classics
Wilhelm Richard Wagner's concept of gesamtkunstwerk is best translated as
He is considered one of the first modern directors because he rehearsal his actors with scenery and costumes for extensive periods of time, created intricately planned crowd scene with paid actors, and produced historically accurate and practical settings
Georg II, Duke of Saxe Meiningen
Edwin Booth's Theatre was revolutionary because
instead of pit and galleries it had modern orchestra and balconies, the seats were individual armchairs, it was not raked and was not designed for traditional wing and shutter scenery, scenery could be raised from the basement or flown in from above
The type of seating in the Bayreuth Festspielhaus meant to deemphasize class distinctions and forming a fan shaped auditorium is called
French playwrights often paid certain audience members to applaud their works; they were called a claque
The three major forms of drama that came to prominence between 1800 and 1875 were storm and stress, melodrama, and realism
By the middle of the 19th Century, the gas table--the equivalent to a modern dimmer board--allowed a single stagehand to alter the intensity of the lighting throughout a theatre.
Doorknobs, dishes, rugs, tables, chairs, and curtains were traditionally painted onto sets