NASM Chapter 19
Lifestyle Modification and Behavioral Coaching
Terms in this set (83)
Personal Trainers have _________ to make a good first impression which includes:
- Making eye contact
- Introducing yourself by name and getting clients name
- Shaking hands with the client
- Remembering the clients name and using it
- Using good body language
Important qualities of a personal trainer (READ)
Personal trainers should:
1. look professional
2. take time to build relationships with new clients
3. communicate to clients that they are listened to
4. maintain confidentiality and ensure client safety
5. be friendly, warm, interested, and compassionate
6. collaborate with clients regarding their exercise routine
7. model all exercises, explaining correct alignment and form
8. ask lots of good questions and perform comprehensive initial assessments
What are some of the key predictors of exercise participation and adherence with respect to the workout facility?
1. A large number of exercise/amenities options for people to choose from
2. A supportive, nurturing environment
3. Convenient location
4. Cost of membership and personal training
*Stages of Change Model
*Stage 1: Precontemplation (Description)
Person has no intention of changing, does not exercise, has no intention to exercise in the next 6 months. It is unlike the personal trainer will see anyone in this stage.
Strategy: Education (information, dispel myths about exercise)
*Stage 2: Contemplation (Description)
Person is thinking about becoming more active in the next 6 months
Strategy: Listen to them and support them in any way you can. Educate them and dispel any misconceptions.
*Stage 3: Preparation
Person exercises occasionally and plans to begin exercising more regularly in the next 1 month. They may have unreal expectations of misconceptions and be disappointed and drop out.
1. clarify realistic goals and expectations
2. sustain their beliefs in the importance of exercise
3. Discuss programs that work best for different clients
4. Consider client's schedules, preferences, and health concerns
5. Ask about previous successful experience with exercise.
6. Avoid exercise that could lead to discomfort or injury
7. Discuss building a social support network.
*Stage 4: Action
Person is active and exercising, but has not yet maintained the behavior for 6 months
1. continue to educate on the pros of exercise
2. discuss barriers to exercise and to anticipate upcoming disruptions
3. create action steps for overcoming barriers (redesign the exercise program if time or intensity is a barrier
*Stage 5: Maintenance
Person has maintained change for 6 months or more
Still may be tempted to relapse so a maintenance check is a good idea. Reinforce pros, discuss progress, and help them to change up their workout plan.
*Description of The Initial Session
1) Trainer has 20 seconds to make a good first impression
2) Initial conversation is when you start to engage, connect, and get to know your client
3) Determine client's readiness to exercise
4) Know their goals, listen, show support and collaborate
5) Discuss health concerns (current, future, family history)
6) Clarify fitness goals
7) Help client anticipate the process and first day
Realistic (willing and able)
What other advice can be given to clients concerning the goals they set?
1. Write them down and refer to them often
2. Break goals down into small steps that can be accomplished in a fairly short period of time.
3. Set goals that include physical skills, mental skills, and the psychological benefits of exercise.
4. Review goals with your clients. Let them know everyone progresses differently and goals can be modified, added, or deleted.
What are the two types of goals?
1. Process goals - a client has more control over these type of goals
2. Product goals - outcome goals
If clients focus on the former, the latter will come as a natural result.
A principle that states people increase their effort and performance when others are watching them
Importance of Effective Communication
*The difference between a trainer's success and failure, connection leads to exercise program adherence
Involves: Nonverbal/verbal, active listening, asking open-ended questions, reflecting, summarizing, using affirmations, and asking permission to give advice
What is one of the strongest predictors of exercise adherence?
Social support (family, friends, coworkers, personal trainers, and other people).
What is a Behavioral Reactant?
Since people do not like to be controlled by others, when feeling pressured and controlled to exercise by another, they will do the opposite.
What are the common barriers to exercise?
Lack of Social Support
Social Physique Anxiety
What is the most common reason people give for not exercising?
What is one way to get someone to overcome the barrier of time?
By having them fill out a time journal. Once they see where they spend their time (such as TV, Games, email, etc.), they will understand the it is not a matter of time, but a matter of prioritizing the time.
What is one way to overcome the barrier of unrealistic goals?
By establish good goals by using good goal setting techniques (SMART). Help the client understand what is possible and reasonable. Chop the larger goals into smaller pieces so they can see results and gain encouragement.
What is Social Support?
It is probably the most important type of social influence on exercise. It is the perceived physical and emotional comfort that a person receives from others. Having this increases motivation and adherence value in exercises.
What is Social Physique Anxiety?
It is a concern a person has with their body image. This could mean body type and attire preferences.
What can be done to help someone struggling with social physique anxiety?
Introduce them to others in the fitness center with their same body type.
Suggest proper attire and where to obtain it.
Help them normalize their body type.
*What are the two main categories (and corresponding subcategories) of strategies to enhance exercise adherence?
Behavioral Strategies (Description)
Behavior strategies aim to change a client's behaviors and actions to improve exercise adherence . It includes self-management, goal setting, and self-monitoring.
Cognitive Strategies (Description)
Aim to change client's thoughts and attitudes toward exercise and physical activity
A cognitive strategy in which you: help clients make a list of any negative thoughts, come up with a list of positive thoughts, then train clients to notice and stop negative thoughts to then replace them with positive thoughts
A cognitive strategy in which you help clients come up with a list and/or equip them with knowledge that will help get them excited about exercise
A cognitive strategy in which a process is created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation (e.g. imagine approaching exercise with great confidence)
Psychological Benefits of Exercise
1) Promotes positive mood
2) Reduces stress
3) Improves sleep
4) Reduces depression and anxiety
What is Trait Anxiety?
Trait anxiety refers to the stable tendency to attend to, experience, and report negative emotions such as fears, worries, and anxiety across many situations, especially new ones.
How much communication in non-verbal?
Types of Support
Instrumental, Emotional, Informational, Companionship
verbal communication steps
1. what speaker means, 2. what speaker says, 3. what listener hears, 4. what listener thinks speaker means
directive, answered with one word
nondirective, allow clients to give more information, can not be answered with a number, place, yes or no. require to elaborate
Stage 1: Precontemplation
No intention of changing. Do not exercise and do not intend to start within 6 months. Education is best strategy with precontemplators.
Stage 2: Contemplation
Thinking about becoming more active in next 6 months. Listen to what contemplators need and support them any way that they can. Contemplators still need information.
Stage 3: Preparation
Exercise occasionally but are planning to begin exercising regularly next month. May have unrealistic expectations for the change they hope to achieve, oftentimes leads to high risk of disappointment and early dropout.
Help clients clarify realistic goals and expectations, help clients maintain their beliefs in the importance of exercise, discuss programs that work best for different clients, consider clients' schedules, ask about previous successful experiences with exercise, avoid exercise that could lead to discomfort or injury, discuss building social support network.
Stage 4: Action
Started exercise, but not yet maintained behavior for 6 months. Continue to provide them with education. Work with their clients to develop steps for overcoming any barriers or disruptions.
Stage 5: Maintenance
Maintained change for 6 months or more. Still tempted to return to old habits.
The Initial Session
20 seconds to make a good first impression. Body language. Initial session building relationship.
Discuss health concerns.
Clarify fitness goals. Verbalize goals. Set SMART goals, specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely.
Reviewing previous exercise experiences
Finalizing program design. Have good sense of health concerns, fitness goals, and past positive and negative experiences.
Help clients anticipate the process.
Importance of Effective Communication Skills
Difference between success and failure in relationship between trainer and his or her client.
Nonverbal and verbal communication - posture, body language, verbal must be clear to be understood correctly.
genuine interest in client's perspective and getting to know them. Pay attention, avoid distractions, look the speaker in the eye.
ask open not close ended questions.
Express the purported meaning of what you just heard. Make sure client is accurately understood.
Draws all important points of conversation together and again allow clients to clarify either what they have said or how someone has interpreted what they have said.
show appreciation for clients and their strengths. Listen carefully to know what to affirm. Validate positive comments about their thoughts, plans, skills.
ask permission to share information.
Specific,measurable,attainable, Realistic, Timely.
clearly defined in such a way anyone could understand what the intended outcome is. Detailed description of what is to be accomplished.
Quantifiable. Establish a way to access the progress toward each goal. If goal cannot be measured a client cannot manage it.
Right mix of goals that are challenging, but not extreme.
Repesent objective toward which an individual is both willing and able to work.
Always have a specific date of completion. Realistic but not too distant in the future.
Help clients become aware of their negative thought process. Help clients come up with list of positive thoughts they might use with regard to exercise. Train clients to notice negative thoughts, stop negative thoughts, and translate those into something positive.
process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation. Clients can imagine themselves approaching their activity with greater confidence. Visualize performing with greater relaxation and muscle control. Rehearse positive outcomes.
Amount of American's who don't exercise for at least 30min daily?
Amount of Time to make a first impression?
What do clients notice in first 20 seconds?
Goal of initial session?
building relationship, getting to know them and goals.
What does the S in SMART stand for? (goal setting)
What does the M in SMART stand for? (goal setting)
What does the A in SMART stand for? (goal setting)
What does the R in SMART stand for? (goal setting)
What does the T in SMART stand for? (goal setting)
Two types of Goals? (goal setting)
- Process and Product
What type of Goal should a Client focus on?
Benefits of Asking about past Activity?
- See what worked and what did not work for client
What should you understand at end of Initial Conversation ?
- Clients Health Concerns
What type of Question is best to ask a client to get the most information back?
Open-ended (non directive)
Why are Open-Ended questions better?
They invite discussion
What is the goal of Reflecting when communicating with Clients?
- Express the meaning of what was just heard.
- They express caring and communicate understanding
What is the goal of Summarizing when communicating with Clients?
- draw all of the important parts of the conversation together.
What is the goal of Affirmation when communicating with Clients?
- Show appreciation for their strength.
- "You" statement
- Communicates an appreciation of clients for who they are.
Why should you Ask Permission when communicating with clients?
- Softens the role as an authority figure
- imposing info can provoke resistance
- Tangible and Practical factors necessary for adherence to exercise goals. i.e. transportation, baby sitter, spotter
- Expressed through encouragement, caring, empathy and concern.
- Enhances self-esteem and reduces anxiety
- Directions, advise or suggestions on how to exercise
- feedback regarding progress.
- Availability of family, friends, and coworkers to exercise with.
- Can distract people from negative exercise related feelings.
Self Management? (behavioral strategies)
- clients manage their own behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.
How you can help with Psyching Up (cognitive strategies)
- Techniques to get psyched up for other situations
- Positive Thoughts, keywords, imagery and music