46 terms

IB History Unit 7: 20th Century Wars

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limited war
-goals: don't want complete surrender -> want negotiations
-no civilian deaths, no mobilization of full army
-limited by location and areas of military
-limited foreign involvement, no homefront movement
-Ex: Malvinas/Falklands: Britain sent small task force (limited military), fought only on islands, only 3 civilian deaths
guerrilla war
-used unorthodox tactics and lacks uniformity
-fighting for independence, survival as resistance
-use small units, hit and run engagement
-goals: endurance/harassing enemy
-rely on voluntary/coerced support -> usually locals (lower status, farmers/workers)
-Ex: Algerian War: comprised of lower class Alg-Muslims, fighting as resistance of French rule, used small units and hit/run attacks
Evian Accords
-result of Algerian War -> agreement to end war -> ceasefire, removed French pied noir/military
-protects property, religious rights of remaining French
-gave French 3 yrs to move/Alg. 3 yrs to gain citizenship
Total Exclusion Zone (TEZ)
-est. by Britain around Falklands
-200 mile radius -> targets any presence in zone
-threatened Arg. navy -> caused sinking of Belgrade (trying to sail around TEZ, sunk by British sub)
-TEZ combated by Arg. w/aircraft attacks
Rio Pact of 1947
-pact made at start of organization for American states
-declares that any attack on one member means attack on all Latin American States
-linked Latin American states to Argentina's side -> gave international support
-US abstained from showing support under this pact (isolated from OAS)
Geneva Accords
-1954 peace settlement made by UN Sec. Council
-divided Vietnam into 2 separate nations along the parallel
-divided Korea into North and South
-ended French occupation
-North -> Ho Chi Minh est. communist leadership
-South -> Diem became authoritative leader
Military tech. and advancement in Algerian War
FLN:
-use of bonds and small arms stolen from French
-hunting rifles, machine guns
-created hidden bomb factories
French:
-used helicopters to target FLN from above
-used torture techniques of electric shock
-used helicopter gun-ships (T-6 Texan + P-47 Thunderbolts)
Military tech. and advancements in Falklands War
Argentina:
-120 aircraft -> skyhawks made by US
-had submarines
-cruiser Belgrano
-used French Miracle Mirage III, Super Entendard, Exocet Missles
Britain:
-2 aircraft carrier: HMS Invincible, HMS Hermes
-Harriet Jump Jets versatile aircraft, vertical take off
-used helicopters for mobility over islands
-submarines, destroyers, frigates
Military tech. and advancements in Indochina War
Viet Minh:
-rifles from French, Chinese, Czech, Japanese
-Chinese shipments of ammo, artillery
-machine guns and arms (for guerrilla attacks)
French:
-material shortage , weapons scavenged from Britain, Jap., US
-used helicopters to drop troops (paratroopers)
-lots of aircrafts
-napalm
Causes of the Algerian War
Long Term:
-pied noir, favored by France -> social gap
-forced assimilation of Algerians
-problems of French 4th Republic
-French favoritism
Short Term:
-WWII -> Setif Massacre, European colonies = vulnerable
-US/USSR opposition to colonies
-Setif Massacre = French killed many Algerians after "uprising" (speeches/nationalism)
-Nov. 1954 Insurgency: attack on 70 gov't institutions, French forces to fight back, civilian deaths
Algerian War: FLN strategies
-goal: survival, gaining Alg. Independence
-used women/children to deceive French
-planted bombs/small guerrilla assaults
-use French brutality to promote FLN support
-conducted ops./planning outside of Algerian borders (Morocco/Tunisia)
Algerian War: French strategies
-goal: to defeat Algerian uprising/maintain social gap
-used torture, rape, starvation, imprisonment
-relocated villages and created fire zones
-used helicopters, lots of weapons, special elite army
Battle of Algiers
1956-1957
-series of battles/attacks in Algiers
-started w/simultaneous bomb attacks (used women/children)
-French military used any means necessary to stop FLN
-was a *turning pt. b/c increased global publicity of war
-brought international attention -> caused French public to be against war
Algerian War: Foreign involvement
-Tunisia/Morocco = provided safe haven for Central Command of FLN
-gave them space to coordinate/direct attacks/activities of Wilayahs
-FLN army grew to 35,000 in Morocco/Tunisia
-UK/UN = disapproved of French still holding colonies
Algerian War: Results and effects in Algeria
-250,000 died, 1.2 million displaced/refugees
-destroyed property
-Ben Bella -> new. Alg. President: established authoritarian gov't
-incr. political instability, con't coups, riots, protests
-est. of rule by Islamic law
-pied noir exodus
-harkis left for France
Algeria War: Results and effects in France
-harkis emigration -> no aide (financial, political, or educational)
-Charles de Gaulle: national hero
-last act of decolonization worldwide
-military spending 60% of all French spending
-con't to invest in Algerian industry after war
-incr. trade btwn Algeria and France
Causes of Falklands War
Long Term:
-differing claims btwn Britain/Argentina
-Antarctic Treaty: Argentina wanted military holdings in ocean, looks to Malvinas in Atlantic
-Britain didn't want to give control/surrender to Argentinian Junta
-failed UN negotiations
Short Term:
-economic issues -> UK: privatization, cut public funding/military funding, Arg: decr. trade, economic failure
-political issues -> Junta received pressure from econ/Anaya (looking for something to unite/distract ppl), Thatcher: needed to show strength
-"Dirty War" -> needed distraction
Falklands War: Argentinian strategies
-goals: get islands for military, target w/aircrafts, mobilize, incr. Junta support
-launched early attacks/occupation, acted before Britain approached
-assured US neutrality
-used amphibious/air warfare
-sunk HMS Sheffield (w/British helicopters)
Falklands War: British strategies
-goals: Arg. withdrwal, end of Arg. occupation, restoration of British administration in Falklands
-Maritime Exclusion Zone -> Total Exclusion Zone (TEZ)
-used air cover/raids
-est. beach heads for land invasions
-publicized tank force -> demoralize Arg./rally British
-use Ascension Island, gain US support
Falklands War: Foreign involvement
US:
-Alexander Haig attempted peaceful negotiations: failed
-gave British Ascension Island to use
United Nations:
-Arg. brought issues to Security Council -> claimed UK aggression, UK countered w/Res. 502 = cessation of hostility, w/draw of forces -> UK diplomatic win
-Org. of Am. States: Rio Pact, sided w/Argentina, called cessation of UK hostility, US abstaination
Falklands War: Results and effects In Argentina
-740 dead, 1200 wounded
-public outrage -> Junta dismantled
-political parties restored
-Raul Alfonso, head of leftist gov't -> gained power
-economic crash -> 900% inflation
-3 islander deaths
-still claim islands
Falklands War: Results and effects in Britain
-250 killed, 750 wounded
-Thatcher = popularity incr., re-voted as British PM, gained more party control
-Royal Navy/Air force = ceased downsizing, incr. funding
-new air base built in South Atlantic
-strong UK/US alliance
Causes of Indo-China War
Long Term:
-Vietnam under French rule for 30 years
-Westernization/French assimilation (education/religion)
-resources being extorted by French
-nationalist resistance/violence -> tensions rising
Short Term:
-international relations were poor
-nations post WWII = weak
-Viet Minh want to est. independence
-guerrilla attacks against Japanese/Vichy French
-Sept 1945: V.M. declare independence
-conflicting interests of V.M., French, GMD -> V.M. lost independence
Indo-China War: Viet Minh strategies
-goal: establish independence
-3 ranks of soldiers/3 phases of war:
phase 1: guerilla war, amass resources
phase 2: mixed/mobile war, wear French down
phase 3: conventional war -> defeat French
-used political/social propaganda and intimidation
-Battle of Route Coloniale 4 -> battle victory
-used Chinese support/advisers/resources
Indo-China War: French strategies
-goal: suppress Viet Minh indep.
-create one big confrontation/battle
-built outposts/barracks to defend land (easily targeted by VM)
-used strategy of destroying land/resources -> failed due to lack of French resources to guard land
-gained $3 billion in US aide
-air superiority w/helicopters, use of napalm
Indo-china War: Foreign involvement
-Mao/Chinese involvement: supported Viet Minh communist ideals, gave military arms (4000 tons/month), sent military leaders/men/training
-US: monetary support given to French, $3 billion, involved in South Vietnam government establishment (supported Diem), est. SEATO to stop spread of communism
-leads to US occupation (hopes for democratic rule)
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Mar 13, 1954
-Giap attacked Dien Bien Phu, French valley base
-Giap situates men at high places -> target French outposts, airstrips (field), and forts
-French isolated in valley, lose airfield to VM, can't evacuate
-May 7, French surrender -> cause global outrage
-VM have upper hand in negotiations at Geneva Accords
Indo-China War: Results and effects for Viet Minh
-Ho Chi Minh achieves goal w/strength of negotiation at Geneva Accords
-Geneva Accords: divides North/South, ends French occupation -> Ho Chi Minh leader in North
-Diem -> leader in South, w/US presence (planned elections cancelled due to unpopularity of Diem), Viet Cong est. to fight against South
-US founded SEATO, to stop communism -> incr. communist tension
Indo-China War: Results and effects for French
-France lost upper hand at Geneva Accords
-France forced to withdraw from Vietnam
-also let go of Tunisia/Morocco
-make them fight harder for Algeria
Charles de Gaulle
-appointed Pres. of France during 5th Republic
-revived failing French gov't
-realized that FLN was not stoppable
-held referendum to determine Algerian independence
-caused French/Algerians to rejoice
-backlash from French military and pied noir
Fehrat Abbas
-nationalist for Algeria, represented Algerian-Muslims
-wrote Manifesto of Algerian-Muslims
-moderate leader of FLN, led from Cairo, Egypt
-helped radicalize and unify Algerians
-served in the French military
-organized wilayahs
Ben Bella
-radical Arab-Algerian nationalist and socialist
-imprisoned by French, escaped to Cairo
-fought for French during WWII
-leader/founder of FLN w/Abbas
-became Pres. of Algeria after Algerian War (1962-1965) -> was exiled after
FLN
-socialist nationalist political party in Algeria
-made up of multiple small groups of Algerian rebels
-ALN: Armee de Liberation nationale = military sector
-led revolt/war against France
-used guerrilla tactics to hurt French occupation -> throw French/pied noir out of Algeria
Pied-Noir
-French colonizers/descendants from migrated French
-very right/high (elite) status -> perpetuated societal gap
-widened gap btwn Algerians and French w/segregation and persecution
-were targeted by FLN operations
harkis
-Algerian-Muslims -> sympathizers of French rule
-fought for French during Algerian War
-fought b/c of fear of French, wanted French protection
-targeted heavily by FLN
-became low status immigrants in France after war ended
Organisation de l'armee secrete (OAS)
-group made of pied noir/radical French military
-hated Charles de Gaulle's decision to let FLN win, withdraw French
-constructed barricades to stop FLN: Week of Barricades
-conducted terrorist attacks against FLN
Margaret Thatcher
-was PM of Britain
-issued new policies of privatization/cut public funding
-participated/fought in Falklands War to show strength against Juna and distract from economy
-known as Iron Lady
Leopoldo Galtieri
-leader of Argentinian military Junta
-was responsible for thousands of Argentinian citizens being killed/arrested (Dirty War)
-urged war to unite people (pressured by Anaya) and fix failing economy
-instigated South Georgia occupation by Argentina
Organization of American States (OAS)
-ratified Rio Pact, held Latin America together
-blamed UK in Falklands/Malvinas conflict
-called for cessation of hostilities by Britain
-US (OAS member) -> abstained from OAS decision to agree w/Argentina, considered conflict of interest (wanted UK alliance)
Ho Chi Minh
-leader of Viet Minh
-goal: to establish Vietnam as free from French rule
-helped establish Vietnam Declaration of Independence
-led VM in guerrilla war
-worked alongside Commander Giap
Vo Nguyen Giap
-Viet Minh commander (military)
-goal: avoid direct large scale combat w/French
-influenced by Mao's warfare and training (received commanding help)
-used plan of long drawn out guerrilla war
-2 strategies: non-military = propaganda, military = 3 stages of war
General Alessandri
-French commander = wasn't successful
-developed strategy of destroying loyal Viet Minh/Vietnamese support
-used strategy by flushing out Viet Minh and destroying infrastructure
-strategy failed -> ran out of resources
General de Lattre
-experienced soldier -> French commander
-fought as commander during 1950
-won 3 battles at Tonkin Delta -> forced VM retreat all 3 times
-pushed VM back -> built de Lattre Line thru North
Vietnamese National Army (VNA)
-established by French gov't
-recruited local Vietnamese
-fight for French against VM
-people w/capitalist ideals -> wanted to fight back against communist/communist ideology
Viet Minh
-Nationalist group w/communist ideals and revolutionary goal
-fight for independence in Vietnam
-led by Ho Chi Minh (Vo Nguyen Giap)
-divided into 3 groups/ranks (Dan Quong, full-time guerrillas, regular forces
-used mix of guerrilla fighting, regular fighting, and propaganda
-very anti-Western/anti-foreign
Dan Quong
-popular force of Viet Minh
-comprised of local/rural members
-part time guerrilla fights/scavengers
-contributed intel, small ambush attacks
-communicated French army movement
-helped transport weaponry