56 terms

IB History Unit 5: The Move to Global War

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appeasement
-allowing countries to expand and conquer
-giving into political demands
-allowed Germany to expand and Hitler to spread fascist rule
Anschluss
-the annexation of Austria
-helps reunification of all Germans
-Italy against Anschluss, feared German invasion
-Western powers saw Anschluss as inevitable
-ACHIEVED???
Little Entente
-alliance formed in 1920 + 1921 btwn Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia
-prevent resurgence of Hungarian power
-agreed on mutual assistance
-PURPOSE? IMPACT ON GERMANY
Blitzkrieg
-"lightning war"
-military tactic = first drop bombs on civilian centers then invade w/tanks
-used German expansion air force and tanks
Pact of Steel
-Pact of Friendship and Alliance
-signed btwn Italy and Germany
-declaration of trust and cooperation
-secret protocol fostering union of military and economic policy
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Aug. 1939
-signed by USSR and Hitler
-prevent Soviet and British/French alliance, ensures neutrality
-agreed on Northern v. Eastern Europe in German and Soviet spheres
-benefits for Germany: no 2 front war, neutrality w/USSR
-benefits for Soviets: avoided war, given 1/2 Polish territory, trade w/Germany
Lebensraum
-"living space"
-refers to land Hitler intends to invade and own for expansion of the Aryan race
-hoped to expand east to Russia and repopulate w/Germanic people
SA v. SS
SA (Brown Shirts):
-paramilitary wing of Nazi party
-ex-soldiers, marched in rallies
-physically assaulted Hitler's political opponents
SS (Apr. 1925):
-section of SA
-Hitler's personal bodyguard
-elite force, restricted to pure Aryans
-used to carry out murders
Locarno Era
Oct 1925
-7 agreements made in Locarno, Switzerland
-introduced hope for international peace (Spirit of Locarno) and secure post-WWI territories
-divided countries between those protected by Locarno v. those not protected
-heavily undermined by Soviet-Franco Treaty + Rhineland Remilitarization (when Hitler began to go against Locarno)
Treaty of Versailles
-peace treaty at the end of WWI
-forced Germany to accept blame/responsibilities of war
-Italy never received land they were promised when asked to join war
-caused German expansion/retallion against treaty (led to Hitler's rise)
-caused Italy to look elsewhere to imperialize/be recognized (Mussolini's opposition towards US/Britain/etc)
Treaty of London
1915
-aka London Pact
-Britain/France/Russia agreed to give Italy various Italian inhabited areas and other ports
-wanted Italy to join war (Allied side)
-after the war, pact was invalidated -> Italians outraged, Fiume affair (protest against Italian gov't for allowing Fiume to be taken from Italty)
Hoare-Laval Pact
-attempted to maintain Stresa Front
-created by Laval and Hoare (foreign ministers oof Britain/France)
-needed to protect Italy's interests and stop fighting by giving Mussolini 2/3 of Abyssinia
-undermined League of Nations authority -> giving into fascism/contradicts collective security
Stresa Front
Apr 1935
-aimed to reaffirm Locarno Treaty and confirm Austrian independence
-signed by Italy, Britain, France
-in response to Hitler's rearmament and threat of Anschluss
Mein Kampf
-written in 1923 while Hitler was imprisoned
-wrote about unity, nationalism, anti-seminitism
-laid out aims for foreign policy:
1. a whole Deutschland = unify all of Germany
2. race and living space = Lebensraum (only pure Aryans)
3. natural enemies and allies = destroy opposition (Bolsheviks, Jewish), ally w/Britain
Fascism v. Nazism
Fascism:
-nationalism = superior national perspective
-militarism = violence is revitalizing, necessary for progress
-authoritarianism = totalitarian, people are subservient to state
Nazism:
-party attempting to gain power in 1933, est. 3rd Reich
-form of fascism = anti-Semitic, racial hierarchy
-Lebensraum - conquering living space
Tripartite Pact
-agreement between Italy, Germany, and Japan
-agreed that Germany and Italy would dominate Europe and leave Japan to dominate East Asia
United Front
-formed btwn Nationalist Party (GMD) and Communist Party (CCP) in China
-suspended Chinese Civil War to fight Japanese
-relations broken in 1941 when Jiang (GMD) attacked communists
Lytton Report
-fact-finding mission lead by Lord Lytton
-stated Japan interests in Manchuria -> use of force/takeover was unjustified
-suggestions: Japan should give up territory/withdraw, Manchuria should be independent (under Chinese sovereignty)
-Japan rejected report, withdrew from League of Nations
Kellogg-Briand Pact
-"Pact of Paris" 1928
-promise not to use war to resolve disputes/conflicts
-instigated by Locarno Treaty
-signed by 14 nations including Britain, Japan, UK, etc
The Yellow Peril
-slogan made by Western powers to turn people away from Japan
-caused fear of invasion and anti-Japanese sentiment
-to keep Japan out of "imperialist club", exclude Japan
Meiji Period
-political power returns to the emperor, caused by Open Door Policy (1854)
-est. limited form of democracy
-promoted national unity and patriotism
-military reform -> German tactics used, new navy
-started move towards expansion (1894-95 Sino-Japanese War)
Rapallo Treaty
Apr 1922
-Germany and Russian treaty
-introduced diplomatic relations and cooperation (politically/economically)
-allowed Germany to rearm in Russia
disarmament
-to reduce military power of a country
-failed because:
1. used rearmament as economic recovery (employment)
2. reluctant to limit arms (threat of USSR, Germany)
3. Japan's invasion of Manchuria -> undermined collective security, made countries more unwilling
collective security
-peace preserved by countries acting together to prevent one country attacking another
-impose moral pressure -> economic sanctions, military help
-failed due to lack of military contribution
-Western powers often not in economic, militaristic, political position
German expansion
-began rearming w/Rapallo Treaty (w/USSR)
-remilitarized Rhineland = marched in and hoped BR/FR wouldn't send troops
-stopped paying reparations
-unified Anschluss (after getting Italy's consent)
-demanded Sudentenland -> invaded Czechoslovakia and conquered
-invaded Poland -> breaks Non-Agression Pact
-WWI begins
Italian Expansion
-Fiume Affair -> protest against gov't compliance w/Treaty of Versailles, took over Fiume
-Invasion of Abyssinia -> to build Roman Empire, resources, export market, Fascism -> condemned by LoN, broke Locarno Treaty
-Invasion of Albania -> was protectorate state, to assert Italian strength, intimidate Yugoslavia, King Zog retaliates/flees
-Pact of Steel -> Italian and German cooperation
Pearl Harbor Attack
Dec 7, 1941
-Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
-causes: failure of negotiations btwn Japan and US, embargo on Japan
-effects: US declares war on Japan, bombing of Japan, US occupancy in Japan
Japanese Expansion
-desire to be equal w/the West, industrialization
-invaded China, Russia, Manchuria
-Sino-Japanese War -> Japan attempt to invade China leads to Marco Polo Bridge Crisis and Rape of Nanjing
-Invasion of Manchuria -> Mukden Incident (railway attack), took Manchuria, Manchuko created, leaves LoN
-AntiComintern Pact: united w/Ger against USSR
-Tripartite Pact: w/Ger and Italy solidified alliance
-US embargo instigated Pearl Harbor attack
US Isolationism
1920s-1940s
-didn't want to get involved in disputes not related to them
-Hoover took minimal action in Manchuria
-Great Depression = focus on domestic issues
-Neutrality Acts (1930s) = no agressor/victim, limited aid
-Pearl Harbor caused US to join war
Munich Putsch
-aka Hitler's March in Germany
-decided to march to Bavaria then Berlin
-Gen. Ludendorff planned march and supported Hitler
-armed police fought back -> Hitler arrested
-face Hitler free publicity
-in prison he wrote Mein Kampf
Causes of the rise of Nazism in Germany
-WWI Treaty of Versailles
-blamed Germany -> public disagreement, misery
-Hitler wrote Mein Kampf -> goals of his views (Nazism)
-Nazism grew out of instability in Weimar Republic -> many assassinations
-Munich Putsch -> gave Nazism more popularity
March on Rome
Oct 1922
-Fascist congress -> declares intention to March on Rome
-attempted to seize control of gov't -> gov't resigned
-King made Mussolini PM
-Mussolini decided to make myth of March to intimidate ppl w/his power -> claimed he declared ultimatum and gave them no choice but to give in
Causes of rise of Fascism in Italy
-2 Red Years -> Era of political/economic instability
-Huge dislike for liberal democracy
-WWI -> ppl upset at democratic gov't for accepting Treaty of Versailles
-Mussolini est. Fascist Party to unify Italy
-Acerbo Law increased fascist presence in Italy
Causes of the rise of militarism in Japan
-treated as "not member of western powers"
-Washington Conference -> told to reduce arms
-frustration w/West -> desired to show military prowess
-Mukden Incident -> military creates excuse to invade Manchuria
-desired to est. empire in Southeast Asia
-gov't failed to keep military under control
Spanish Civil War
-Republicans v. Nationalist Parties
-Francisco Franco led Nationalist Party
-Ger involvement: Hitler helps w/transportation, minimal involvement, wanted friendly gov't relations w/Spain, able to test air force, encouraged pro-Fascist gov't
-Italian involvement: sent tons of resources, support Fascist gov't, ended up being high cost, 1/3 arms lost in war, Spain didn't become Italian state
Sino-Japanese War
1937
-Marco Polo Bridge -> Japanese open fire on bridge
-Japanese invade Shanghai/Beijing/ Nanjing -> Rape of Nanjing
-incr. tension btwn Jap. and China
-causes US to intervene in China, stop trade w/Japan
-China formed United Front (2nd time) to fight Japan
-Japan must withdraw at start of WWII
Russo-Japanese War
-Japan had interests in Manchuria
-attacked Russians in 1904
-Japanese fleet defeated Russian fleet almost immediately
-Japan gained control of Korea, South Manchuria (Port Arthur), railway
-earned Western powers respect
-Japan able to annex Korea
-weakened economy during war
Ruhr Crisis
-France relied on Ger. reparations
-Ger. failed to pay (Weisbaden Accord)
-France sent troops into Ruhr to gain reparations by force
-German works went on strike -> caused hyperinflation, incr. France/Ger tension, incr. Ger nationalism
-Dawes Plan -> resolved issue
-undermined authority of League, acts of aggression went unaddressed
Effects of WWI on the rise of Mussolini
-helped in victory of Triple Entente, received few of promised areas -> led to outrage
-Mussolini rose to power w/goal of restoring Roman Empire (revenge for Treaty of Versailles)
-after WWI: Fiume Affair caused liberal democracy instability
Effects of WWI on the rise of Hitler
-Germans outraged at Treaty of Versailles, for getting all blame
-Hitler decided to get involved in politics -> wrote Mein Kampf, gained following
-WWI caused many challenges to Weimar Republic -> created instability
Failure of the League of Nations
causes:
-key nations leave = Germany, Japan, Italy, USSR -> weakened collective security
-collective security: countries failed to sanction collectively, no military backing to threaten
-many actions undermined League: appeasement, Anglo-Ger. Treaty, Franco-Soviet Treaty, Great Depression (sanctions impossible), Ruhr Crisis
-failure to disarm -> Rapallo Treaty
Catholic Church
-in Italy -> break down in relations w/gov't during Italian Liberal Democracy
-Vatican urged Catholics not to vote in democracy
-supported fascism b/c it invluded the church in gov't
Victor Emmanuel III
-the King of Italy (1922-ish)
-offered Mussolini position of PM after his March on Rome
-feared Civil War and hoped to gain Mussolini's side in gov't
Franklin D. Roosevelt
-responds to Italian Invasion of Abyssinia
-failure to reach peace = bad news for all nations (Roosevelt says)
-declared no direction action would be taken -> remained isolationist
Neville Chamberlain
-PM of Britain
-helped create diplomacy for Sudetenland Crisis -> Munich Conference
-divided Czechoslovakia for Ger., Poland, Yugo.
-threatened Czechoslovakia into giving up land
-never wanted war/avoided war at all costs -> appeased Hitler
-declares war on Ger. in 1939
Emperor Selassie
-emperor of Abyssinia
-begged the League of Nations for help from Italian invasion -> asked for investigation
-Italian stopped investigation from going to League
Francisco Franco
-led Nationalists in Spanish Civil War -> extremely right wing
-led coup to seize power from gov't and Republicans
-gained support from fascist regimes: Germany and Italy during Civil War
Paul von Hindenburg
-elected President of the Weimar Republic in 1932
-ran against Hitler
-agreed to appoint Hitler as Chancellor
-signed Enabling Act giving Hitler power
Gustav Stresaman
-chancellor of Germany
-helped re-stabilize German economy -> stopped hyperinflation
-used Dawes Plan and Young Plan
-pragmatic nationalist -> believed in cooperation
-joined League of Nations, signed Kellogg-Briand Pact, Locarno Treaties -> hope led to Locarno Spring
-ppl disagreed w/him b/c of his cooperation w/Treaty of Versailles
Adolf Hitler
-led fascist party (and Nazi Party) in Germany
-wrote Mein Kampf -> about desire for "gross deutschland", racial superiority, lebesraum
-made Chancellor of Germany (1933)
-incr. Nazi gov't presence
-Enabling Act: freedom to pass laws w/o Reichstag
-persecuted all non-Aryans
-reinvaded Rhineland, gained Czechoslovakia, gained Anschluss, invaded Poland
Benito Mussolini
-goal: expand/imperialize in Southeast Europe
-facilitated development of Fascist Party -> gained huge support from divided Italian state
-Oct. 1922 -> March on Rome: King gave Mussolini PM seat
-Acerbo Law: gave most seats to Fascists, gained incr. executive power -> censorship
-founded blackshirts and OVRA -> violent groups dedicated to fascism
Emperor Hirohito
-new emperor -> celebrated as living "god"
-revival of nationalism and ideas of Japan's special destiny
-during revival of the Meiji Period (1920s)
Tojo Hideki
-leading Tosei-ha general
-became Chief of Staff to the Kwantung Army
-ordered the invasion of China
-involved in Manchurian Crisis and Sino-Japanese War -> instigated Marco Polo Bridge Incident
-was Minister of War in Jap.
Mao Zedong
-lead Communist Party in China
-joined Jiang to form United Front against warlords
-joined Jiang to form 2nd United Front against Japan
-ends up defeating Jiang after Japanese are defeated
-est. People's Republic of China
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)
-leader of Nationalist Party (GuoMin Dang in China)
-began campaign of national unification
-joined communist party to form United Front (1921)
-ends up fighting civil war (1929) against communists -> loses support
-1936 -> formed 2nd United Front to defeat Japan
warlords
-local/regional military leaders
-Zhang Zuolin -> warlord of Manchuria
-Kwantung Army assassinate Zhang to conquer Manchuria
-United Front -> "Northern Expedition" to consolidate gov't and take power from warlords